Next Article in Journal
Conceptual Framework for Modeling Dynamic Complexities in Produced Water Management
Previous Article in Journal
Multitemporal Scenic Evaluation of Urban Coastal Sites: A Peruvian Case Study
 
 
Article

Removal of Pharmaceuticals in a Macrophyte Pond-Constructed Wetland System and the Effect of a Low Effluent Recirculation

1
Instituto Universitario de Estudios Ambientales y Recursos Naturales (i-UNAT), Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, 35017 Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Spain
2
Escuela de Ingeniería Industriales y Civiles, Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, 35017 Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Andreas Angelakis
Water 2022, 14(15), 2340; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14152340
Received: 6 July 2022 / Revised: 24 July 2022 / Accepted: 25 July 2022 / Published: 29 July 2022
(This article belongs to the Section Wastewater Treatment and Reuse)
Waste stabilization ponds and constructed wetlands (CWs) are effective at eliminating pharmaceutical residues, but removals are not usually complete. Their combination is regarded as an efficient, robust wastewater treatment method, but their efficiency in the removal of pharmaceuticals and the effect of a mild effluent recirculation has not been sufficiently studied in full-scale systems. Effluent recirculation can help to improve performance by increasing hydraulic residence time and, eventually, dissolved oxygen concentration. In this work, the presence of pharmaceuticals in wastewater from a university campus, their removal in a macrophyte pond–CW system, and the effect of effluent recirculation on removal and ecological risk were evaluated. Stimulants (caffeine and nicotine) and non-steroidal anti-inflammatories (naproxen and ibuprofen) were the most detected compounds in the influent and showed the highest concentrations, ranging from 0.5 to 300 µg·L−1. The pond–CW combination showed notable elimination for these compounds, achieving 87% on average. The ecological risk was also reduced by between 5.5 and 12.4 times, but it was still over values that indicates high ecological risk, mainly because of the concentrations of nicotine and ibuprofen. The effect of effluent recirculation was not as high as expected since the removals of caffeine, paraxanthine and naproxen were significantly improved, but those of atenolol and ibuprofen were lower. These results suggest that a higher recirculation ratio should be tested. View Full-Text
Keywords: wastewater treatment; pharmaceuticals; pond; constructed wetland; effluent recirculation; risk assessment wastewater treatment; pharmaceuticals; pond; constructed wetland; effluent recirculation; risk assessment
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

MDPI and ACS Style

Guedes-Alonso, R.; Herrera-Melián, J.A.; Sánchez-Suárez, F.; Díaz-Mendoza, V.; Sosa-Ferrera, Z.; Santana-Rodríguez, J.J. Removal of Pharmaceuticals in a Macrophyte Pond-Constructed Wetland System and the Effect of a Low Effluent Recirculation. Water 2022, 14, 2340. https://doi.org/10.3390/w14152340

AMA Style

Guedes-Alonso R, Herrera-Melián JA, Sánchez-Suárez F, Díaz-Mendoza V, Sosa-Ferrera Z, Santana-Rodríguez JJ. Removal of Pharmaceuticals in a Macrophyte Pond-Constructed Wetland System and the Effect of a Low Effluent Recirculation. Water. 2022; 14(15):2340. https://doi.org/10.3390/w14152340

Chicago/Turabian Style

Guedes-Alonso, Rayco, José A. Herrera-Melián, Francisca Sánchez-Suárez, Verónica Díaz-Mendoza, Zoraida Sosa-Ferrera, and José J. Santana-Rodríguez. 2022. "Removal of Pharmaceuticals in a Macrophyte Pond-Constructed Wetland System and the Effect of a Low Effluent Recirculation" Water 14, no. 15: 2340. https://doi.org/10.3390/w14152340

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop