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Management Alternatives of Aquifer Storage, Distribution, and Simulation in Conjunctive Use

Institute of Water Engineering and Environment (IIAMA), Universitat Politècnica de València, Camino de Vera s/n, 46022 Valencia, Spain
Real Academia de Ciencias Exactas, Físicas y Naturales de España, C. de Valverde, 24, 28004 Madrid, Spain
Real Academia de Cultura Valenciana, C. de las Avellanas, 26, 46003 Valencia, Spain
Instituto Geológico y Minero de España-CSIC, C. Alcázar Genil, 0, 18001 Granada, Spain
Department Civil & Environmental Engineering, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37235, USA
Secretaría de Estado de Medio Ambiente, Ministerio para la Transición Ecológica y el Reto Demográfico, Plaza de San Juan de la Cruz, 28003 Madrid, Spain
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Frédéric Huneau, Dimitrios E. Alexakis and Pankaj Kumar
Water 2022, 14(15), 2332;
Received: 4 July 2022 / Revised: 20 July 2022 / Accepted: 23 July 2022 / Published: 28 July 2022
(This article belongs to the Section Hydrogeology)
Aquifers are ubiquitous, and their water is easy to obtain with low extraction costs. On many occasions, these characteristics lead to overexploitation due to important water level declines, reduction of river base flows, enhanced seawater intrusion, and wetland affection. The forecasted increase in water demands and global warming will impact the future availability of water resources. Conjunctive use of surface and subsurface waters can help in mitigating these impacts. There are two main conjunctive use strategies: artificial recharge (AR) and alternate conjunctive use (ACU). AR stores waters that are not to be used directly in aquifers. ACU utilizes groundwater in dry periods, while surface waters are preferred in wet ones; this allows the increase of water supply with lower dam storage, economic gains, and environmental advantages. Efficient conjunctive use can prevent soil salinization and waterlogging problems in semiarid countries due to excessive recharge from irrigation return flows or other origins. Groundwater is a neglected and generally misused resource to maintain environmental conditions. When considering the solution to a water resources problem, groundwater should always be part of the design as an alternative or a complementary resource. Aquifers have large inertia, and changes in their volumes are only noticeable after years of observations. Unfortunately, groundwater observation networks are much poorer than surface ones, something that should be changed if groundwater is to come to the rescue in these times of climate change. Human and material resources should be made available to monitor, control, analyze, and forecast groundwater. View Full-Text
Keywords: groundwater; hydrogeology; alternate conjunctive use groundwater; hydrogeology; alternate conjunctive use
MDPI and ACS Style

Sahuquillo, A.; Cassiraga, E.; Gómez-Hernández, J.J.; Andreu, J.; Pulido-Velazquez, M.; Pulido-Velazquez, D.; Álvarez-Villa, O.D.; Estrela, T. Management Alternatives of Aquifer Storage, Distribution, and Simulation in Conjunctive Use. Water 2022, 14, 2332.

AMA Style

Sahuquillo A, Cassiraga E, Gómez-Hernández JJ, Andreu J, Pulido-Velazquez M, Pulido-Velazquez D, Álvarez-Villa OD, Estrela T. Management Alternatives of Aquifer Storage, Distribution, and Simulation in Conjunctive Use. Water. 2022; 14(15):2332.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Sahuquillo, Andrés, Eduardo Cassiraga, J. Jaime Gómez-Hernández, Joaquín Andreu, Manuel Pulido-Velazquez, David Pulido-Velazquez, Oscar D. Álvarez-Villa, and Teodoro Estrela. 2022. "Management Alternatives of Aquifer Storage, Distribution, and Simulation in Conjunctive Use" Water 14, no. 15: 2332.

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