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Article

Vertical Dense Effluent Discharge Modelling in Shallow Waters

Department of Civil Engineering, University of Ottawa, 161 Louis Pasteur, Ottawa, ON K1N 6N5, Canada
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Mauro De Marchis
Water 2022, 14(15), 2312; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14152312
Received: 20 June 2022 / Revised: 18 July 2022 / Accepted: 20 July 2022 / Published: 25 July 2022
Vertical dense effluent discharges are popular in outfall system designs. Vertical jets provide the opportunity to be efficient for a range of ambient currents, where the jet is pushed away so as not to fall on itself. This study focuses on the worst-case scenario of the dilution and mixing of such jets: vertical dense effluent discharges with no ambient current, in shallow water, where the jet impinges the water surface. This scenario provides conservative design criteria for such outfall systems. The numerical modelling of such jets has not been investigated before and this study provides novel insights into simulations of vertical dense effluent discharges in shallow waters. Turbulent vertical discharges with Froude numbers ranging from 9 to 24 were simulated using OpenFOAM. A Reynolds stress model (RSM) was applied to characterize the geometrical (i.e., maximum discharge rise Zm and lateral spread Rsp) and dilution μmin properties of such jets. Three flow regimes were reproduced numerically, based on the experimental data: deep, intermediate, and impinging flow regimes. View Full-Text
Keywords: shallow water; effluent discharge; vertical dense jet; surface dilution; impingement; return point; OpenFOAM shallow water; effluent discharge; vertical dense jet; surface dilution; impingement; return point; OpenFOAM
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MDPI and ACS Style

Gildeh, H.K.; Mohammadian, A.; Nistor, I. Vertical Dense Effluent Discharge Modelling in Shallow Waters. Water 2022, 14, 2312. https://doi.org/10.3390/w14152312

AMA Style

Gildeh HK, Mohammadian A, Nistor I. Vertical Dense Effluent Discharge Modelling in Shallow Waters. Water. 2022; 14(15):2312. https://doi.org/10.3390/w14152312

Chicago/Turabian Style

Gildeh, Hossein Kheirkhah, Abdolmajid Mohammadian, and Ioan Nistor. 2022. "Vertical Dense Effluent Discharge Modelling in Shallow Waters" Water 14, no. 15: 2312. https://doi.org/10.3390/w14152312

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