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Article

Simulating Dynamics and Ecology of the Sea Ice of the White Sea by the Coupled Ice–Ocean Numerical Model

by 1,*,†, 2,† and 3,†
1
Institute of Applied Math Research, Karelian Research Centre of RAS, 185035 Petrozavodsk, Russia
2
Northern Water Problems Institute, Karelian Research Centre of RAS, 185035 Petrozavodsk, Russia
3
Marchuk Institute of Numerical Mathematics of the RAS, 119333 Moscow, Russia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Academic Editor: Alessandra Feo
Water 2022, 14(15), 2308; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14152308
Received: 2 June 2022 / Revised: 15 July 2022 / Accepted: 22 July 2022 / Published: 25 July 2022
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Numerical Modelling of Sea Dynamics)
In this paper, a numerical model of the White Sea is presented. The White Sea is a small shallow sea with strong tidal currents and complex ice behavior. The model is the only comprehensive numerical model for the White Sea. It consists of several coupled submodels (for water, ice, pelagic, and sympagic ecology). In this work, the focus is on the dynamics of sea ice and its ecosystem. The model is described and its results are compared to available sea–ice data, mostly satellite data. The spatial resolution of the model is 3 km. High current velocities require the time step of 3 min. The model is shown to reproduce sea–ice concentration well; in particular, timing of the sea ice is perfect. The dynamics of the sea–ice ecosystem also looks reasonable. Chlorophyll-a content agrees well with measurements, and the ratio of algal, bacterial, and faunal biomass is correct. Sympagic biomass is underestimated. Light is limiting at the early stage of sympagic bloom, nutrient limitation is for the second half. We show that sympagic component influences the spring bloom (in terms of timing and height of the peaks) but has little effect on the dynamics during the warm period of the year. View Full-Text
Keywords: White Sea; sea ice; numerical simulation; marine ecology dynamics; sympagic ecology White Sea; sea ice; numerical simulation; marine ecology dynamics; sympagic ecology
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MDPI and ACS Style

Chernov, I.; Tolstikov, A.; Iakovlev, N. Simulating Dynamics and Ecology of the Sea Ice of the White Sea by the Coupled Ice–Ocean Numerical Model. Water 2022, 14, 2308. https://doi.org/10.3390/w14152308

AMA Style

Chernov I, Tolstikov A, Iakovlev N. Simulating Dynamics and Ecology of the Sea Ice of the White Sea by the Coupled Ice–Ocean Numerical Model. Water. 2022; 14(15):2308. https://doi.org/10.3390/w14152308

Chicago/Turabian Style

Chernov, Ilya, Alexey Tolstikov, and Nikolay Iakovlev. 2022. "Simulating Dynamics and Ecology of the Sea Ice of the White Sea by the Coupled Ice–Ocean Numerical Model" Water 14, no. 15: 2308. https://doi.org/10.3390/w14152308

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