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Load Frequency Control of Microgrid System by Battery and Pumped-Hydro Energy Storage

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Department of Electrical Engineering, Ardahan University, Ardahan 75002, Turkey
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Department of Mathematics, University of Gujrat, Gujrat 50700, Pakistan
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Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Technology, Future University in Egypt, New Cairo 11835, Egypt
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Wolfgang Richter and Kaspar Vereide
Water 2022, 14(11), 1818; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14111818
Received: 7 April 2022 / Revised: 19 May 2022 / Accepted: 23 May 2022 / Published: 6 June 2022
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pumped-Storage Hydropower: Flexible Giants for the Energy Transition)
Energy security is one of the main factors in the development and diffusion of microgrid applications. In networks operating without storage, the operation of their systems is greatly affected by sudden load demand and intermittent generation fluctuations. The main purposes of using energy storage systems in microgrids are stabilizing the intermittent generation of renewable energy sources locally, to ensure that energy production matches energy demands, participating in the frequency regulation process, maintaining the energy balance between generation and demand in renewable energy microgrids, and increasing energy reliability. This study investigates the frequency and power balance of an isolated microgrid system, by including storage systems (battery and pump-hydro). Realistic data for wind and solar sources are used for the optimal tuning of the proportional-integral controller, using the integral of the absolute error criterion multiplied by time, with a Quasi-Newton method. Simulation studies have been carried out, to investigate the performance of the microgrid system, by including the hydroelectric power plant system with pump storage for 24 h, under various operating conditions. The results reveal that by including the storage units in the system, it exhibits a more consistent and smooth dynamic performance, using renewable energy efficiently. View Full-Text
Keywords: renewable energy; microgrid; pumped-hydro storage; battery; Quasi-Newton method renewable energy; microgrid; pumped-hydro storage; battery; Quasi-Newton method
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MDPI and ACS Style

Coban, H.H.; Rehman, A.; Mousa, M. Load Frequency Control of Microgrid System by Battery and Pumped-Hydro Energy Storage. Water 2022, 14, 1818. https://doi.org/10.3390/w14111818

AMA Style

Coban HH, Rehman A, Mousa M. Load Frequency Control of Microgrid System by Battery and Pumped-Hydro Energy Storage. Water. 2022; 14(11):1818. https://doi.org/10.3390/w14111818

Chicago/Turabian Style

Coban, Hasan Huseyin, Aysha Rehman, and Mohamed Mousa. 2022. "Load Frequency Control of Microgrid System by Battery and Pumped-Hydro Energy Storage" Water 14, no. 11: 1818. https://doi.org/10.3390/w14111818

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