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Article

Three-Dimensional Flow Velocity Estimation of Mountain Glacier Based on SAR Interferometry and Offset-Tracking Technology: A Case of the Urumqi Glacier No.1

1
College of Geography and Environmental Science, Northwest Normal University, Lanzhou 730070, China
2
State Key Laboratory of Cryospheric Science, Tian Shan Glaciological Station, Northwest Institute of Eco-Environment and Resources, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000, China
3
College of Geoscience and Surveying Engineering, China University of Mining & Technology, Beijing 100083, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Chang Huang
Water 2022, 14(11), 1779; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14111779
Received: 21 March 2022 / Revised: 18 May 2022 / Accepted: 28 May 2022 / Published: 1 June 2022
Remote sensing estimations of glacier flow velocity could provide effective methods for the long-term monitoring of glacier flow velocity. This paper calculated the velocity in the line-of-sight (LOS) direction by combining DInSAR and offset-tracking technology with ascending and descending Sentinel-1 images of the Urumqi Glacier No.1 from 2016 to 2017. Meanwhile, the velocity in the azimuthal direction was obtained by combining MAI and offset-tracking technology. Then, the eastward, northward, and upward flow velocities were retrieved using the Helmert variance component estimation method. Finally, the standard error of the mean and mean errors of surface velocity in non-glaciated areas of the Urumqi Glacier No.1 were calculated to evaluate the accuracy of the results generated by the proposed method. The results showed: (1) The ascending LOS velocity and the descending LOS velocity were 1.812 m/a and −1.558 m/a from 2016 to 2017. The ascending azimuthal and descending azimuthal velocities were 0.978 m/a and −2.542 m/a, respectively. (2) The glacier flow velocities were 2.571 m/a and 1.801 m/a, respectively, for the eastward and northward directions. In the vertical direction, the velocity was −0.554 m/a. (3) The accuracy of the results generated by the proposed method were 0.028 m/a, 0.085 m/a, and 0.063 m/a in the east, north, and vertical directions. Therefore, it is suitable to use ascending and descending Sentinel-1 images and the study method proposed in this paper to estimate the surface flow velocity of mountain glaciers. View Full-Text
Keywords: glacier flow velocity; Urumqi Glacier No.1; Sentinel-1; Helmert variance component estimation; SAR interferometry technology; offset-tracking technology glacier flow velocity; Urumqi Glacier No.1; Sentinel-1; Helmert variance component estimation; SAR interferometry technology; offset-tracking technology
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MDPI and ACS Style

Liu, J.; Zhao, J.; Li, Z.; Yang, Z.; Yang, J.; Li, G. Three-Dimensional Flow Velocity Estimation of Mountain Glacier Based on SAR Interferometry and Offset-Tracking Technology: A Case of the Urumqi Glacier No.1. Water 2022, 14, 1779. https://doi.org/10.3390/w14111779

AMA Style

Liu J, Zhao J, Li Z, Yang Z, Yang J, Li G. Three-Dimensional Flow Velocity Estimation of Mountain Glacier Based on SAR Interferometry and Offset-Tracking Technology: A Case of the Urumqi Glacier No.1. Water. 2022; 14(11):1779. https://doi.org/10.3390/w14111779

Chicago/Turabian Style

Liu, Jialiang, Jun Zhao, Zhongqin Li, Zhihui Yang, Jianxia Yang, and Guangchao Li. 2022. "Three-Dimensional Flow Velocity Estimation of Mountain Glacier Based on SAR Interferometry and Offset-Tracking Technology: A Case of the Urumqi Glacier No.1" Water 14, no. 11: 1779. https://doi.org/10.3390/w14111779

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