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Article

The 21st August 2020 Flood in Douala (Cameroon): A Major Urban Flood Investigated with 2D HEC-RAS Modeling

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Technology and Applied Science Laboratory, University Institute of Technology, University of Douala, Douala P.O. Box 8698, Cameroon
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Institute of Geological and Mining Research, Vogt Street, Yaoundé P.O. Box 4110, Cameroon
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Laboratoire Mixte International—Dynamique des Ecosystèmes Continentaux d’Afrique Centrale (LMI-DYCOFAC), Institut de Recherche pour le Développement, Yaoundé P.O. Box 1857, Cameroon
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Philia Ingenierie, 193 Avenue Jean Rieux, 31500 Toulouse, France
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Aix-Marseille Université, CNRS, IRD, INRAE, Coll France, CEREGE, 13100 Aix-en-Provence, France
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Ecosystems and Fishery Resources Laboratory, Institute of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, University of Douala, Douala P.O. Box 2701, Cameroon
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Douala Urban Council (DUC), Douala P.O. Box 1857, Cameroon
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Géosciences et Environnement, Toulouse (Université de Toulouse, CNRS, IRD), 14 Avenue Edouard Berlin, 31400 Toulouse, France
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HydroSciences Montpellier, Université de Montpellier, CNRS, IRD, 300 Av. Pr E. Jeanbrau, 34090 Montpellier, France
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Renato Morbidelli
Water 2022, 14(11), 1768; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14111768
Received: 13 April 2022 / Revised: 19 May 2022 / Accepted: 20 May 2022 / Published: 31 May 2022
(This article belongs to the Section Hydrology)
A major flood event occurred on 21 August 2020 in the densely populated Makèpè Missokè neighborhood in the city of Douala (Cameroon, Africa). Nearly 2210 buildings and 12,376 victims spread over 82 hectares were affected. A 2D HEC-RAS model is applied to simulate and characterize this event. A cross analysis of flood depth and flow velocity is used to classify the flood risk and identify areas exposed from low to high hazard. The simulations provide detailed information on the flood characteristics (extent, depth, velocity, arrival time, and duration). The simulated maximum water surface profiles are consistent with the floods marks with differences ranging from 0.02 m to 0.44 m, indicating a good agreement between the observed and simulated water levels at the peak flow (NSE = 0.94, Erel = 0.92, RMSE = 0.21 m). The maximum inundation level is 4.48 m and the flow velocity is globally low at less than 1 m/s. The average flood arrival time and duration are 5 h and 26 h, respectively, for a threshold height of 0.5 m. These results indicate a fast mobilization of the major river channel for the evacuation of this flood. The level of accuracy of the developed model of the 21 August 2020 flood event is appropriate for flood hazard assessment in the city of Douala and is designed to find operational application in future events. View Full-Text
Keywords: flood hazard assessment; HEC-RAS; hydraulic modeling; Tongo Bassa watershed; urban floods flood hazard assessment; HEC-RAS; hydraulic modeling; Tongo Bassa watershed; urban floods
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MDPI and ACS Style

Iroume, J.Y.-A.; Onguéné, R.; Djanna Koffi, F.; Colmet-Daage, A.; Stieglitz, T.; Essoh Sone, W.; Bogning, S.; Olinga Olinga, J.M.; Ntchantcho, R.; Ntonga, J.-C.; Braun, J.-J.; Briquet, J.-P.; Etame, J. The 21st August 2020 Flood in Douala (Cameroon): A Major Urban Flood Investigated with 2D HEC-RAS Modeling. Water 2022, 14, 1768. https://doi.org/10.3390/w14111768

AMA Style

Iroume JY-A, Onguéné R, Djanna Koffi F, Colmet-Daage A, Stieglitz T, Essoh Sone W, Bogning S, Olinga Olinga JM, Ntchantcho R, Ntonga J-C, Braun J-J, Briquet J-P, Etame J. The 21st August 2020 Flood in Douala (Cameroon): A Major Urban Flood Investigated with 2D HEC-RAS Modeling. Water. 2022; 14(11):1768. https://doi.org/10.3390/w14111768

Chicago/Turabian Style

Iroume, Junior Yves-Audrey, Raphaël Onguéné, Francis Djanna Koffi, Antoine Colmet-Daage, Thomas Stieglitz, Willy Essoh Sone, Sakaros Bogning, Joseph Magloire Olinga Olinga, Romaric Ntchantcho, Jean-Claude Ntonga, Jean-Jacques Braun, Jean-Pierre Briquet, and Jacques Etame. 2022. "The 21st August 2020 Flood in Douala (Cameroon): A Major Urban Flood Investigated with 2D HEC-RAS Modeling" Water 14, no. 11: 1768. https://doi.org/10.3390/w14111768

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