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Article

Spatiotemporal Analysis of Climatic Extremes over the Upper Indus Basin, Pakistan

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Climate Research Institute, Konkuk University, Seoul 100-011, Korea
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Centre for Integrated Mountain Research (CIMR), Qaid e Azam Campus, University of the Punjab, Lahore 53720, Pakistan
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Department of Complex Systems, Institute of Computer Science of the Czech Academy of Sciences, 182 07 Prague, Czech Republic
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Department of Civil Engineering, Ghulam Ishaq Khan Institute of Engineering Sciences and Technology, Swabi 23640, Pakistan
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International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development, Khumaltar, P.O. Box 3226, Kathmandu 44700, Nepal
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Faculty of Agriculture and Environmental Sciences, University of Rostock, 18059 Rostock, Germany
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Persiaran UTP, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Seri Iskandar 32610, Malaysia
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School of Environmental and Municipal Engineering, Xi’an University of Architect and Technology, Xi’an 710055, China
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Institute of International Rivers and Eco-Security, Yunnan University, Kunming 650500, China
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Crawford School of Public Policy, College of Asia & Pacific, Australian National University, Canberra 2600, Australia
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Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Guy Howard
Water 2022, 14(11), 1718; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14111718
Received: 14 March 2022 / Revised: 20 April 2022 / Accepted: 6 May 2022 / Published: 27 May 2022
(This article belongs to the Section Water and Climate Change)
The Hindukush-Karakoram-Himalayan (HKH) ranges and their massive cryosphere extend over the Upper Indus Basin (UIB) and are prone to incapacitated water supply due to the proclivity of globally increased temperature. Due to excessive carbon emissions, frequent incursions including extreme climatic events, are likely to happen sooner than expected on a regional scale due to recent climate change. The present study examined the variability of climatic extremes (18 indices) during 1971 to2018 over the UIB. The Mann-Kendall (MK) test and Sen’s methods were applied for statistical analysis as the former deals with the magnitude of trends while the direction of observed trends was identified by the latter in climatological time-series data. The frequency and intensity of summer days (SU25 > 25 °C/year) at 13 out of 27 stations significantly increased, particularly in lower regions. The same warming proclivity was dominant in tropical nights (TR20 > 20 °C/year) at 20 stations including Astore, Bunji, Gilgit, Gupis, Murree and Skardu. Similarly, significant increases were observed in extremes of annual precipitation in western and high northern areas; however, significantly, the highest drops in R25 and R5day were exhibited in Chitral at the rates of 13 and 29 days, respectively. These findings tend to support the accelerated summer warming and a rather stable winter warming while stable winter warming showed that overall the UIB seems to be more sensitive towards warming. View Full-Text
Keywords: extreme climate; cooling and warming extremes; Upper Indus Basin; Mann-Kendall test extreme climate; cooling and warming extremes; Upper Indus Basin; Mann-Kendall test
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MDPI and ACS Style

Abbas, S.; Yaseen, M.; Latif, Y.; Waseem, M.; Muhammad, S.; Kebede Leta, M.; Sher, S.; Ali Imran, M.; Adnan, M.; Khan, T.H. Spatiotemporal Analysis of Climatic Extremes over the Upper Indus Basin, Pakistan. Water 2022, 14, 1718. https://doi.org/10.3390/w14111718

AMA Style

Abbas S, Yaseen M, Latif Y, Waseem M, Muhammad S, Kebede Leta M, Sher S, Ali Imran M, Adnan M, Khan TH. Spatiotemporal Analysis of Climatic Extremes over the Upper Indus Basin, Pakistan. Water. 2022; 14(11):1718. https://doi.org/10.3390/w14111718

Chicago/Turabian Style

Abbas, Sohail, Muhammad Yaseen, Yasir Latif, Muhammad Waseem, Sher Muhammad, Megersa Kebede Leta, Sadaf Sher, Muhammad Ali Imran, Muhammad Adnan, and Tallal Hassan Khan. 2022. "Spatiotemporal Analysis of Climatic Extremes over the Upper Indus Basin, Pakistan" Water 14, no. 11: 1718. https://doi.org/10.3390/w14111718

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