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Article

Can Water Vapor Transport over the Himalayas above 8000 m asl?—A Case Study on Mt. Everest

by 1,2, 1,* and 1,2
1
State Key Laboratory of Cryospheric Science, Northwest Institute of Eco-Environment and Resources, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000, China
2
University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Renato Morbidelli
Water 2022, 14(11), 1671; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14111671
Received: 11 April 2022 / Revised: 17 May 2022 / Accepted: 18 May 2022 / Published: 24 May 2022
(This article belongs to the Section Water and Climate Change)
Due to the extreme, harsh natural environment in the Himalayas higher than 8000 m above sea level (asl) long-term and continuous meteorological observation is still a great challenge, and little is known about water vapor transport in this extremely high region. Based on the Automatic Weather Stations (AWSs) at 3810 m, 5315 m, 6464 m, 7945 m and 8430 m asl on the southern slope of Mt. Everest, this study investigates the meteorological characteristics and water vapor transport in the Mt. Everest region from June 2019 to June 2021. The results show that (1) with the increase of altitude, the temperature lapse rate becomes deeper from −4.7 °C km−1 to −8.1 °C km−1; (2) the relative humidity increases significantly in summer, and precipitation during the monsoon period accounts for more than 70% of the annual total; and (3) during the monsoon in 2020, the number of days with negative daily water vapor divergence in the whole layer accounted for 31% at the height from ground to 350 hPa, and the moisture amount transported through water vapor convergence was about 122 mm. The study indicates that, with sufficient moisture supply, strong water vapor convergence and a relatively large vertical velocity, a small amount of water vapor can climb to an extreme height and be transported from the southern to the northern slope of the Himalayas. View Full-Text
Keywords: Mt. Everest; moisture; water vapor flux divergence; monsoon; vertical variation of precipitation Mt. Everest; moisture; water vapor flux divergence; monsoon; vertical variation of precipitation
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MDPI and ACS Style

Xu, B.; Xie, A.; Zhu, J. Can Water Vapor Transport over the Himalayas above 8000 m asl?—A Case Study on Mt. Everest. Water 2022, 14, 1671. https://doi.org/10.3390/w14111671

AMA Style

Xu B, Xie A, Zhu J. Can Water Vapor Transport over the Himalayas above 8000 m asl?—A Case Study on Mt. Everest. Water. 2022; 14(11):1671. https://doi.org/10.3390/w14111671

Chicago/Turabian Style

Xu, Bing, Aihong Xie, and Jiangping Zhu. 2022. "Can Water Vapor Transport over the Himalayas above 8000 m asl?—A Case Study on Mt. Everest" Water 14, no. 11: 1671. https://doi.org/10.3390/w14111671

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