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Article

The Effect of Sol-Gel Coatings on the Phosphorus (P) Adsorption Capacity of Calcareous Materials for Use in Water Treatment

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Department of Biology, Aarhus University, Ole Worms Allé 1, 8000 Aarhus, Denmark
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Aarhus University Centre for Water Technology (WATEC), Department of Biology, Aarhus University, Ny Munkegade 120, 8000 Aarhus, Denmark
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Sino-Danish Centre for Education and Research (SDC), Niels Jensens Vej 2, 8000 Aarhus, Denmark
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Coating and Polymer Technology, Danish Technological Institute (DTI), Kongsvang Allé 29, 8000 Aarhus, Denmark
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Blaikie Science Solutions, Invermay AgResearch Campus, Puddle Alley 176, Mosgiel 9053, New Zealand
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Wei Ma and Gaurav Sharma
Water 2022, 14(1), 3; https://doi.org/10.3390/w14010003
Received: 30 October 2021 / Revised: 10 December 2021 / Accepted: 17 December 2021 / Published: 21 December 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Wastewater Treatment and Reuse)
(1) Phosphorus (P) removal has proven difficult in decentralized wastewater treatment systems, and P binding material, installed as an external filter, has been proposed for improving P removal. Especially, calcium (Ca)-rich materials have shown promising results. (2) Five calcareous materials were tested with isotherm batch experiments. The material with the highest P adsorption capacity was selected to undergo different Sol-Gel coatings, i.e., different coating dilution ratios (1:10, 1:5, and 1:1) and exposure periods (5, 10, and 15 min). The seven coated materials were evaluated by isotherm experiments. (3) The maximum adsorption capacity (Qmax) was determined by fitting the Langmuir equation. Qmax for the non-coated materials, and ranged from 0.7 (sand) to 35.1 (Catsan) mg P g−1 DW, while the coated materials ranged from 7.8 to 24.7 mg P g−1 DW depending on the coating. Based on the rotated Principal Component Analysis, the most important parameters for Qmax were the texture and the Ca content. (4) Catsan was the most promising material, but when performing a Sol-Gel coating, a trade-off between preserving Qmax and the coating thickness were evident, as the materials with the thinner coating preserved more of the sorption capacity. The development of P binding materials constitutes a useful technology in decentralized wastewater treatment systems. View Full-Text
Keywords: Constructed Wetlands (CWs); decentralised wastewater treatment; filter; media; Sol-Gel coating; phosphorus (P); sorption; adsorption isotherm experiments; Langmuir; Freundlich Constructed Wetlands (CWs); decentralised wastewater treatment; filter; media; Sol-Gel coating; phosphorus (P); sorption; adsorption isotherm experiments; Langmuir; Freundlich
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MDPI and ACS Style

Jensen, S.M.; Søhoel, H.; Blaikie, F.H.; Brix, H.; Arias, C.A. The Effect of Sol-Gel Coatings on the Phosphorus (P) Adsorption Capacity of Calcareous Materials for Use in Water Treatment. Water 2022, 14, 3. https://doi.org/10.3390/w14010003

AMA Style

Jensen SM, Søhoel H, Blaikie FH, Brix H, Arias CA. The Effect of Sol-Gel Coatings on the Phosphorus (P) Adsorption Capacity of Calcareous Materials for Use in Water Treatment. Water. 2022; 14(1):3. https://doi.org/10.3390/w14010003

Chicago/Turabian Style

Jensen, Solvei M., Helmer Søhoel, Frances H. Blaikie, Hans Brix, and Carlos A. Arias. 2022. "The Effect of Sol-Gel Coatings on the Phosphorus (P) Adsorption Capacity of Calcareous Materials for Use in Water Treatment" Water 14, no. 1: 3. https://doi.org/10.3390/w14010003

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