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Article

An Advanced Sensor Placement Strategy for Small Leaks Quantification Using Lean Graphs

by 1,2,3,*,†,‡, 2,3,*,‡ and 2,*,‡
1
Department of Informatics, Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember, Jl. Raya ITS, Keputih, Sukolilo, Surabaya 60111, Jawa Timur, Indonesia
2
Faculty of Engineering and Mathematical Sciences, Computer Science and Software Engineering, University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Hwy, Crawley 6009, WA, Australia
3
CRC for Water Sensitive Cities, PO BOX 8000, Clayton 3800, VIC, Australia
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Current address: Department of Informatics, Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember, Jl. Raya ITS, Keputih, Sukolilo, Surabaya 60111, Jawa Timur, Indonesia.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Water 2020, 12(12), 3439; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12123439
Received: 18 October 2020 / Revised: 18 November 2020 / Accepted: 20 November 2020 / Published: 8 December 2020
Small leaks in water distribution networks have been a major problem both economically and environmentally, as they go undetected for years. We model the signature of small leaks as a unique Directed Acyclic Graph, called the Lean Graph, to find the best places for k sensors for detecting and locating small leaks. We use the sensors to develop dictionaries that map each leak signature to its location. We quantify leaks by matching out-of-normal flows detected by sensors against records in the selected dictionaries. The most similar records of the dictionaries are used to quantify the leaks. Finally, we investigate how much our approach can tolerate corrupted data due to sensor failures by introducing a subspace voting based quantification method. We tested our method on water distribution networks of literature and simulate small leaks ranging from [0.1, 1.0] liter per second. Our experimental results prove that our sensor placement strategy can effectively place k sensors to quantify single and multiple small leaks and can tolerate corrupted data up to some range while maintaining the performance of leak quantification. These outcomes indicate that our approach could be applied in real water distribution networks to minimize the loss caused by small leaks. View Full-Text
Keywords: leak quantification; sensor networks; fault tolerance; water distribution networks leak quantification; sensor networks; fault tolerance; water distribution networks
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MDPI and ACS Style

Shiddiqi, A.M.; Cardell-Oliver, R.; Datta, A. An Advanced Sensor Placement Strategy for Small Leaks Quantification Using Lean Graphs. Water 2020, 12, 3439. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12123439

AMA Style

Shiddiqi AM, Cardell-Oliver R, Datta A. An Advanced Sensor Placement Strategy for Small Leaks Quantification Using Lean Graphs. Water. 2020; 12(12):3439. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12123439

Chicago/Turabian Style

Shiddiqi, Ary M., Rachel Cardell-Oliver, and Amitava Datta. 2020. "An Advanced Sensor Placement Strategy for Small Leaks Quantification Using Lean Graphs" Water 12, no. 12: 3439. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12123439

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