Effective microorganism treatment, a low-cost and remediation measure that with no secondary pollution, was conducted in aquaculture wastewater. Unfortunately, effective microorganism erosion caused by the momentum of water flow under in situ conditions limits the treatment effect. In the channel test, a floating plant bed coupled with the effective microorganism was used to treat crab-breeding wastewater. This study explored the effect of plant coverage and hydraulic loading on aquaculture wastewater purification in the floating plant bed–effective microorganism coupled system. The results show that the effect of the coupled treatment effect is much better than pure microorganism treatment. The pollutant degradation coefficient has a significantly positive correlation with the length of the floating plant bed. A plant coverage rate of 30% and effluent hydraulic loading of 1.0 m3
·day are optimum floating plant bed–effective microorganism test conditions. Once the coverage rate exceeded 30%, the increase in the CODMn
removal efficiency was not clear. At the same time, the high plant coverage inhibited the oxygen capacity in the water body, which directly led to a decrease in the degradation ability of organic matter by the plant. The biology–ecology coupled technology proposed in this study overcame the shortcomings of the easy-to-lose effective microorganism during the traditional unfixed process and improved the stability of the processing system. It strengthened the crab-breeding wastewater remediation effect. For an in situ application, the artificial restoration system 1 km in length was efficient, and the discharge met the standard at the end of the river.
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