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Open AccessArticle

Hydrochemistry Differences and Causes of Tectonic Lakes and Glacial Lakes in Tibetan Plateau

1
College of Geography and Environment Science, Northwest Normal University, Lanzhou 730070, China
2
State Key Laboratory of Cryosphere Science, Northwest Institute of Eco-Environment and Resources, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000, China
3
Gansu Forestry Polytechnic, Tianshui 741020, China
4
Institute of International Rivers and Eco-Security, Yunnan University, Kunming 650091, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2020, 12(11), 3165; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12113165
Received: 27 September 2020 / Revised: 8 November 2020 / Accepted: 10 November 2020 / Published: 12 November 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Hydrology and Hydrogeology)
The Tibetan Plateau has the largest lake cluster in China and in the world. In order to clarify the differences of lake hydrochemistry of Tibetan Plateau, water samples were collected from 32 lakes, including 22 tectonic lakes and 11 glacial lakes, along the Tibetan Plateau road, from September to October 2016. We detected and analyzed the major ion concentrations and characteristics of samples, and discuss the hydrochemistry type, controlling factors, and major ion sources of lake water. The results showed that, firstly, tectonic lake samples on the Tibetan Plateau have much higher physicochemical parameters and ion contents than glacial lakes, and Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) contents fluctuate from high to low latitudes. The variations of ion concentrations in the northern part of the Qiagui Co were more fluctuating and have two obvious peaks, while the variations in the southern part were moderate. The TDS of glacial lakes were low and leveling off in the upper and middle reaches of the basin, while higher and more variable in the lower reaches. Secondly, the tectonic lakes were mainly chloride saline lakes, with Na+ as the major cation, and SO42−, Cl as the major anions. Glacial lakes were mainly carbonate and sulfate type lakes, Ca2+ and Mg2+ were the major cations, HCO3 was the major anion, and SO42− was the second. Thirdly, the hydrochemistry processes of the tectonic lakes were mainly controlled by evaporation-crystallization, and the ions mainly came from the evaporites of basin. Glacial lake water samples were mainly influenced by the weathering of basin rocks, with ion sources strongly influenced by the weathering of basin carbonates than evaporites, with calcite and dolomite being important sources of Ca2+, Mg2+, and HCO3. View Full-Text
Keywords: hydrochemistry process; major ion characteristics; tectonic lakes; glacial lakes; Tibetan Plateau hydrochemistry process; major ion characteristics; tectonic lakes; glacial lakes; Tibetan Plateau
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MDPI and ACS Style

Sun, M.; Jin, H.; Yao, X.; Yan, L.; Li, X.; Gao, Y. Hydrochemistry Differences and Causes of Tectonic Lakes and Glacial Lakes in Tibetan Plateau. Water 2020, 12, 3165. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12113165

AMA Style

Sun M, Jin H, Yao X, Yan L, Li X, Gao Y. Hydrochemistry Differences and Causes of Tectonic Lakes and Glacial Lakes in Tibetan Plateau. Water. 2020; 12(11):3165. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12113165

Chicago/Turabian Style

Sun, Meiping; Jin, Huian; Yao, Xiaojun; Yan, Luxia; Li, Xiaofeng; Gao, Yongpeng. 2020. "Hydrochemistry Differences and Causes of Tectonic Lakes and Glacial Lakes in Tibetan Plateau" Water 12, no. 11: 3165. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12113165

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