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A Test Study of an Energy and Mass Balance Model Application to a Site on Urumqi Glacier No. 1, Chinese Tian Shan

1
State Key Laboratory of Cryospheric Sciences, Northwest Institute of Eco-Environment and Resources, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000, China
2
University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
3
Geography Department/Geographisches Institute, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, D-10099 Berlin, Germany
4
Department of Physical Geography, Stockholm University, SE-114 19 Stockholm, Sweden
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2020, 12(10), 2865; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12102865
Received: 23 August 2020 / Revised: 2 October 2020 / Accepted: 4 October 2020 / Published: 15 October 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Hydrology and Hydrogeology)
In this study, energy and mass balance is quantified using an energy balance model to represent the glacier melt of Urumqi Glacier No. 1, Chinese Tian Shan. Based on data from an Automatic Weather Station (4025 m a.s.l) and the mass balance field survey data nearby on the East Branch of the glacier, the “COupled Snowpack and Ice surface energy and Mass balance model” (COSIMA) was used to derive energy and mass balance simulations during the ablation season of 2018. Results show that the modeled cumulative mass balance (−0.67 ± 0.03 m w.e.) agrees well with the in-situ measurements (−0.64 ± 0.16 m w.e.) (r2 = 0.96) with the relative difference within 5% during the study period. The correlation coefficient between modeled and observed surface temperatures is 0.88 for daily means. The main source of melt energy at the glacier surface is net shortwave radiation (84%) and sensible heat flux (16%). The energy expenditures are from net longwave radiation (55%), heat flux for snow/ice melting (32%), latent heat flux of sublimation and evaporation (7%), and subsurface heat flux (6%). The sensitivity testing of mass balance shows that mass balance is more sensitive to temperature increase and precipitation decrease than temperature decrease and precipitation increase. View Full-Text
Keywords: glacier ablation; energy balance; mass balance; Urumqi Glacier No. 1; Chinese Tian Shan glacier ablation; energy balance; mass balance; Urumqi Glacier No. 1; Chinese Tian Shan
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Wang, P.; Li, Z.; Schneider, C.; Li, H.; Hamm, A.; Jin, S.; Xu, C.; Li, H.; Yue, X.; Yang, M. A Test Study of an Energy and Mass Balance Model Application to a Site on Urumqi Glacier No. 1, Chinese Tian Shan. Water 2020, 12, 2865.

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