Next Article in Journal
Simulation of Soil Water Content in Mediterranean Ecosystems by Biogeochemical and Remote Sensing Models
Next Article in Special Issue
The Application of a Modified Version of the SWAT Model at the Daily Temporal Scale and the Hydrological Response unit Spatial Scale: A Case Study Covering an Irrigation District in the Hei River Basin
Previous Article in Journal
TWI Computations and Topographic Analysis of Depression-Dominated Surfaces
Previous Article in Special Issue
Effect of Alternative Irrigation Strategies on Yield and Quality of Fiesta Raisin Grapes Grown in California
Open AccessArticle

The Water–Energy–Food Nexus: A Fuzzy-Cognitive Mapping Approach to Support Nexus-Compliant Policies in Andalusia (Spain)

Department of Agricultural Economics, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, ETSIAAB, Avda. Puerta Hierro 2, 28040 Madrid, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2018, 10(5), 664; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10050664
Received: 6 April 2018 / Revised: 1 May 2018 / Accepted: 15 May 2018 / Published: 19 May 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Innovation Issues in Water, Agriculture and Food)
Water, energy and food are essential resources for economic development and social well-being. Framing integrated policies that improve their efficient use requires understanding the interdependencies in the water–energy–food (WEF) nexus. Stakeholder involvement in this process is crucial to represent multiple perspectives, ensure political legitimacy and promote dialogue. In this research, we develop and apply a participatory modelling approach to identify the main interlinkages within the WEF nexus in Andalusia, as a starting point to developing a system dynamic model at a later stage. The application of fuzzy cognitive mapping enabled us to gain knowledge on the WEF nexus according to opinions from 14 decision-makers, as well as contributing to raising awareness and building consensus among stakeholders. Results show that climate change and water availability are key drivers in the WEF nexus in Andalusia. Other variables with significant interlinkages within the WEF nexus are food production, irrigated agriculture, energy cost, socio-economic factors, irrigation water use, environmental conservation, and farm performance indicators. The scenario analysis reveals the interdependencies among nexus sectors and the existence of unanticipated effects when changing variables in the system, which need to be considered to design integrated policies. View Full-Text
Keywords: water–energy–food nexus; policy-making; stakeholder engagement; fuzzy cognitive maps; Spain; Andalusia water–energy–food nexus; policy-making; stakeholder engagement; fuzzy cognitive maps; Spain; Andalusia
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Martinez, P.; Blanco, M.; Castro-Campos, B. The Water–Energy–Food Nexus: A Fuzzy-Cognitive Mapping Approach to Support Nexus-Compliant Policies in Andalusia (Spain). Water 2018, 10, 664.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop