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Open AccessArticle

Hydrogeochemical Evolution and Heavy Metal Contamination in Groundwater of a Reclaimed Land on Zhoushan Island

1
Institute of Groundwater and Earth Sciences, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632, China
2
Department of Ecology, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632, China
3
School of Water Resources & Environment, China University of Geosciences, Beijing 100083, China
4
Zhejiang Institute of Hydrogeology and Engineering Geology, Ningbo 315012, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2018, 10(3), 316; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10030316
Received: 7 January 2018 / Revised: 3 March 2018 / Accepted: 8 March 2018 / Published: 13 March 2018
The need for valuable land has encouraged reclamation in coastal areas worldwide in the past decades. Land reclamation can alter the groundwater quality in coastal aquifers. The purpose of this study is to identify the effect of land reclamation on groundwater chemistry, especially the major ions, and heavy metals on Zhoushan Island, China. The subsurface media on the island is composed of two layers, i.e., an upper infill layer and an underlain clay layer. The upper layer is previously ocean and filled with various materials. The clay layer is the original marine sediment. The dominated Na and Cl ions in groundwater illustrate high salinity sources of groundwater in the subsurface of the reclaimed land. A mixing trend between seawater and river water of the groundwater in infill layer is also detected based on the ratios of Cl and Br. Though the heavy metal concentrations (Cd, Cr, Zn and Hg) are high in marine sediments, no significant releasing trends in the groundwater are detected in a short-term after reclamation (based on standard GB18668). Meanwhile, Fe-III concentrations in the aquifer have a strong correlation with precipitation events. Column desorption experiments and simulations indicate the Cd and Cr release from the sediment would pose a health risk when the groundwater in the infill layer being gradually flushed by fresh water. These results provide a foundation for the prediction of groundwater quality and are helpful for the future water management in a newly reclaimed land. View Full-Text
Keywords: land reclamation; infill and clay layer; major ion trends; kinetic release of Cd and Cr land reclamation; infill and clay layer; major ion trends; kinetic release of Cd and Cr
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MDPI and ACS Style

Zhang, X.; Hu, B.X.; Wang, P.; Chen, J.; Yang, L.; Xiao, K.; Zhang, X. Hydrogeochemical Evolution and Heavy Metal Contamination in Groundwater of a Reclaimed Land on Zhoushan Island. Water 2018, 10, 316. https://doi.org/10.3390/w10030316

AMA Style

Zhang X, Hu BX, Wang P, Chen J, Yang L, Xiao K, Zhang X. Hydrogeochemical Evolution and Heavy Metal Contamination in Groundwater of a Reclaimed Land on Zhoushan Island. Water. 2018; 10(3):316. https://doi.org/10.3390/w10030316

Chicago/Turabian Style

Zhang, Xiaoying; Hu, Bill X.; Wang, Peng; Chen, Junbing; Yang, Lei; Xiao, Kai; Zhang, Xiaowei. 2018. "Hydrogeochemical Evolution and Heavy Metal Contamination in Groundwater of a Reclaimed Land on Zhoushan Island" Water 10, no. 3: 316. https://doi.org/10.3390/w10030316

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