Next Article in Journal
IWRM and the Politics of Scale: Rescaling Water Governance in Uzbekistan
Previous Article in Journal
Using Sap Flow Data to Parameterize the Feddes Water Stress Model for Norway Spruce
Article Menu
Issue 3 (March) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Water 2018, 10(3), 280;

Application of an Automated Discharge Imaging System and LSPIV during Typhoon Events in Taiwan

Department of Civil and Disaster Prevention Engineering, National United University, Miaoli 36063, Taiwan
College of Engineeing and Science, National United University, Miaoli 36063, Taiwan
Department of Marine Environmental Informatics, National Taiwan Ocean University, Keelung 20224, Taiwan
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 12 February 2018 / Revised: 5 March 2018 / Accepted: 5 March 2018 / Published: 7 March 2018
Full-Text   |   PDF [5521 KB, uploaded 14 March 2018]   |  


An automated discharge imaging system (ADIS), which is a non-intrusive and safe approach, was developed for measuring river flows during flash flood events. ADIS consists of dual cameras to capture complete surface images in the near and far fields. Surface velocities are accurately measured using the Large Scale Particle Image Velocimetry (LSPIV) technique. The stream discharges are then obtained from the depth-averaged velocity (based upon an empirical velocity-index relationship) and cross-section area. The ADIS was deployed at the Yu-Feng gauging station in Shimen Reservoir upper catchment, northern Taiwan. For a rigorous validation, surface velocity measurements were conducted using ADIS/LSPIV and other instruments. In terms of the averaged surface velocity, all of the measured results were in good agreement with small differences, i.e., 0.004 to 0.39 m/s and 0.023 to 0.345 m/s when compared to those from acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) and surface velocity radar (SVR), respectively. The ADIS/LSPIV was further applied to measure surface velocities and discharges during typhoon events (i.e., Chan-Hom, Soudelor, Goni, and Dujuan) in 2015. The measured water level and surface velocity both showed rapid increases due to flash floods. The estimated discharges from ADIS/LSPIV and ADCP were compared, presenting good consistency with correlation coefficient R = 0.996 and normalized root mean square error NRMSE = 7.96%. The results of sensitivity analysis indicate that the components till (τ) and roll (θ) of the camera are most sensitive parameters to affect the surface velocity using ADIS/LSPIV. Overall, the ADIS based upon LSPIV technique effectively measures surface velocities for reliable estimations of river discharges during typhoon events. View Full-Text
Keywords: ADIS; LSPIV; surface velocity; discharge measurement; flash flood; typhoon event ADIS; LSPIV; surface velocity; discharge measurement; flash flood; typhoon event

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Huang, W.-C.; Young, C.-C.; Liu, W.-C. Application of an Automated Discharge Imaging System and LSPIV during Typhoon Events in Taiwan. Water 2018, 10, 280.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Water EISSN 2073-4441 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top