Next Article in Journal
Distribution and Abundance of Antibiotic Resistance Genes in Sand Settling Reservoirs and Drinking Water Treatment Plants across the Yellow River, China
Previous Article in Journal
Reusing Treated Wastewater: Consideration of the Safety Aspects Associated with Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria and Antibiotic Resistance Genes
Article Menu
Issue 3 (March) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Water 2018, 10(3), 245;

Quantitative Impact Assessment of Sewer Condition on Health Risk

Department of Water management, Faculty of Civil Engineering and Geo Sciences, Delft University of Technology, P.O. Box 5048, Delft 2600 GA, The Netherlands
Deltares, P.O. Box 177, Delft 2600 MH, The Netherlands
Delft Institute of Applied Mathematics, Delft University of Technology, P.O. Box 5031, Delft 2600 GA, The Netherlands
Partners4UrbanWater, Javastraat 104a, Nijmegen 6524 MJ, The Netherlands
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 18 January 2018 / Revised: 20 February 2018 / Accepted: 21 February 2018 / Published: 28 February 2018
Full-Text   |   PDF [3651 KB, uploaded 28 February 2018]   |  


Due to a variety of contaminants in floodwater, exposure to urban pluvial flooding may pose a health risk to humans. In-sewer defects may cause increased pluvial flooding, possibly increasing health risks. This paper addresses the impact of in-sewer defects on urban pluvial flooding and, subsequently, on infection probabilities for humans. As such, it provides a necessary input for risk-informed sewer maintenance strategies in order to preserve the hydraulic performance of a sewer system. Critical locations in sewer networks can be safeguarded through detecting changes in hydraulic properties of the sewer system, by using monitoring equipment or alternative inspection methods. Two combined sewer systems in The Netherlands with different characteristics are studied. The catchment-wide average infection probability was calculated using Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment (QMRA) and flooding frequencies from Monte Carlo simulations with a hydrodynamic model. For the studied catchments, it is concluded that the occurrence of flooding is significantly affected by sediment deposits and, consequently, the infection probability as well. The impact of sediment deposits on infection probabilities depends on sewer systems characteristics and varies within the catchment. The results in this paper also demonstrate that further research on the relationship between flood duration and infection probabilities is required. View Full-Text
Keywords: hydrodynamic modelling; health risk; urban drainage; sewer maintenance hydrodynamic modelling; health risk; urban drainage; sewer maintenance

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

van Bijnen, M.; Korving, H.; Langeveld, J.; Clemens, F. Quantitative Impact Assessment of Sewer Condition on Health Risk. Water 2018, 10, 245.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Water EISSN 2073-4441 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top