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Open AccessArticle

Laboratory Efficacy and Disinfection by-Product Formation of a Coagulant/Disinfectant Tablet for Point-of-Use Water Treatment

1
Département de génie civil et génie des eaux, Université Laval, Québec, QC G1V 0A6, Canada
2
Department of Civil Engineering, University of Victoria, Victoria, BC V8P 5C2, Canada
3
Environment & Regional Development Graduate Program (PGDRA), Universidade Federal de Rondônia (UNIR), Porto Velho, Rondônia 76815-800, Brazil
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2018, 10(11), 1567; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10111567
Received: 26 September 2018 / Revised: 24 October 2018 / Accepted: 1 November 2018 / Published: 2 November 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene in Humanitarian Contexts)
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Abstract

Coagulant/disinfection products (CDPs) are a point-of-use (POU) water treatment technique that can improve microbial quality, reduce turbidity, and produce a free chlorine residual (FCR), serving as a potentially effective option for decentralized water treatment in a variety of contexts, including humanitarian emergencies. A novel CDP with a sodium dichloroisocyanurate-based disinfectant was evaluated with regard to its laboratory water treatment efficacy and generation of disinfection byproducts (DBPs). The CDP water treatment performance was assessed relative to bacteriological (E. coli) humanitarian water quality objectives, World Health Organization recommendations for evaluating POU water treatment options, and available DBP regulations and guidelines. At least 4 log10 E. coli reductions, for a “highly protective” status with regard to bacterial reductions, were attained in the tested conditions. Treated waters were consistently below 10 MPN/100 mL with regard to E. coli concentrations, with the majority of samples showing no detectable E. coli. For most conditions, target FCR values were not attained. Treated water turbidity levels were mostly between 5 NTU and 10 NTU. DBP levels were below the regulatory and health-based targets for both families of DBPs studied. This study has served to identify the performance envelopes of the CDP tested under challenging conditions. View Full-Text
Keywords: coagulation; decentralized; disinfection by-products; emergency water treatment; flocculation; household; NaDCC; point-of-use coagulation; decentralized; disinfection by-products; emergency water treatment; flocculation; household; NaDCC; point-of-use
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MDPI and ACS Style

Légaré-Julien, F.; Lemay, O.; Vallée-Godbout, U.; Bouchard, C.; Dorea, C.C. Laboratory Efficacy and Disinfection by-Product Formation of a Coagulant/Disinfectant Tablet for Point-of-Use Water Treatment. Water 2018, 10, 1567.

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