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Water 2018, 10(10), 1445; https://doi.org/10.3390/w10101445

The Efficiency and Reliability of Pollutant Removal in a Hybrid Constructed Wetland with Common Reed, Manna Grass, and Virginia Mallow

Department of Environmental Engineering and Geodesy, University of Life Sciences in Lublin, Lublin 20-950, Poland
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Received: 10 July 2018 / Revised: 7 October 2018 / Accepted: 10 October 2018 / Published: 13 October 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Water and Wastewater Treatment)
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Abstract

In this paper, the pollutant removal efficiency and the reliability of a vertical and horizontal flow hybrid constructed wetland (CW) planted with common reed, manna grass, and Virginia mallow were analyzed. The wastewater treatment plant, located in south-eastern Poland, treated domestic sewage at an average flow rate of 2.5 m3/d. The tests were carried out during five years of its operation (2014–2018). The following parameters were measured: biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), chemical oxygen demand (COD), total suspended solids, total nitrogen, and total phosphorus. The results showed that more than 95% of BOD5, COD, and total phosphorus was removed in the tested CW system. The average effectiveness of removal of total suspended solids and total nitrogen exceeded 86%. A reliability analysis performed using the Weibull probability model showed that the removal reliability in the tested CW was very high for BOD5, COD, total suspended solids, and total phosphorus (100%). The probability that the total nitrogen concentration in the treated effluents would reach the limit value (30 mg/L) established for effluents discharged from a treatment plant of less than 2000 PE (population equivalent) to standing waters was 94%. The values of all the pollution indicators in wastewater discharged to the receiver were significantly lower than the limit values required in Poland. The investigated hybrid CW system with common reed, manna grass, and Virginia mallow guaranteed stable low values of BOD5, COD, total suspended solids, and total phosphorus in the treated wastewater, which meant it was highly likely to be positively evaluated in case of an inspection. View Full-Text
Keywords: efficiency; horizontal flow; hybrid constructed wetlands; pollution removal; reliability; vertical flow; wastewater treatment efficiency; horizontal flow; hybrid constructed wetlands; pollution removal; reliability; vertical flow; wastewater treatment
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Marzec, M.; Jóźwiakowski, K.; Dębska, A.; Gizińska-Górna, M.; Pytka-Woszczyło, A.; Kowalczyk-Juśko, A.; Listosz, A. The Efficiency and Reliability of Pollutant Removal in a Hybrid Constructed Wetland with Common Reed, Manna Grass, and Virginia Mallow. Water 2018, 10, 1445.

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