Next Article in Journal
Spatiotemporal Characteristics of Extreme Precipitation Regimes in the Eastern Inland River Basin of Inner Mongolian Plateau, China
Next Article in Special Issue
Determining Surface Infiltration Rate of Permeable Pavements with Digital Imaging
Previous Article in Journal
Parameter Estimation of Water Quality Models Using an Improved Multi-Objective Particle Swarm Optimization
Article Menu
Issue 1 (January) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Water 2018, 10(1), 33;

Hydrologic and Water Quality Evaluation of a Permeable Pavement and Biofiltration Device in Series

Water Resources/Stormwater, WithersRavenel, 115 MacKenan Drive, Cary, NC 27511, USA
Hazen and Sawyer, One South Broad St., Suite 1630, Philadelphia, PA 19107, USA
Department of Biological and Agricultural Engineering, North Carolina State University, Campus Box 7625, Raleigh, NC 27695, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 30 November 2017 / Revised: 19 December 2017 / Accepted: 27 December 2017 / Published: 3 January 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Permeable Pavements and Their Role in Sustainable Urban Development)
Full-Text   |   PDF [11629 KB, uploaded 24 January 2018]   |  


Two stormwater control measures (SCMs) installed in series were monitored for their individual impact on the hydrology and water quality of stormwater runoff from a 0.08-hectare watershed in Fayetteville, North Carolina, for 22 months. Runoff was first treated by permeable interlocking concrete pavement (PICP), the underdrain of which discharged into a proprietary box filter (Filterra® biofiltration) which combined high-flow-engineered media with modest biological treatment from a planted tree. Due to a deteriorating contributing drainage area and high ratio of impervious area to permeable pavement area (2.6:1), clogging of the permeable pavement surface caused an estimated 38% of stormwater to bypass as surface runoff. Fifty-six percent of runoff volume infiltrated underlying soils, and the remaining 6% exited the Filterra® as treated effluent; the hydrologic benefit of the Filterra® was minimal, as expected. Primary treatment through the PICP significantly reduced event mean concentrations (EMCs) of total suspended solids (TSS), total phosphorus (TP), total nitrogen (TN), and total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN) but contributed to a significant increase in nitrate/nitrite (NO2,3–N) concentrations. Secondary treatment by the Filterra® further reduced TSS and TP concentrations and supplemented nitrogen removal such that treatment provided by the overall system was as follows: TSS (removal efficiency (RE): 96%), TP (RE: 75%), TN (RE: 42%), and TKN (RE: 51%). EMCs remained unchanged for NO2,3–N. Despite EMC reductions, additional load reduction due to the Filterra® was modest (less than 2%). This was because (1) a majority of pollutant load was removed via PICP exfiltration losses, and (2) nearly all of the export load was from untreated surface runoff, which bypassed the Filterra®, and therefore the manufactured device never had the opportunity to treat it. Cumulative load reductions (based only upon events with samples collected at each sampling location) were 69%, 60%, and 41% for TSS, TP, and TN, respectively. When surface runoff was excluded, load reductions increased to over 96%; lower run-on ratios (which would reduce clogging rate) and/or increased maintenance frequency might have improved pollutant load removal. View Full-Text
Keywords: treatment train; stormwater management; stormwater quality; permeable pavement; manufactured treatment device treatment train; stormwater management; stormwater quality; permeable pavement; manufactured treatment device

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Braswell, A.S.; Anderson, A.R.; Hunt, W.F. Hydrologic and Water Quality Evaluation of a Permeable Pavement and Biofiltration Device in Series. Water 2018, 10, 33.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Water EISSN 2073-4441 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top