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Open AccessArticle

Dual RNA-Seq Analysis of Trichophyton rubrum and HaCat Keratinocyte Co-Culture Highlights Important Genes for Fungal-Host Interaction

1
Biotechnology Unit, University of Ribeirão Preto-UNAERP, São Paulo 2201, Brazil
2
Laboratory of Molecular Genetics and Bioinformatics, Regional Hemotherapy Center of Ribeirão Preto, Ribeirão Preto 2501, Brazil
3
Department of Genetics, Ribeirão Preto Medical School, University of São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto 14049-900, Brazil
4
Center for Medical Genomics at the Clinics Hospital of Ribeirão Preto Medical School, University of São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto 14049-900, Brazil
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Genes 2018, 9(7), 362; https://doi.org/10.3390/genes9070362
Received: 30 May 2018 / Revised: 11 July 2018 / Accepted: 16 July 2018 / Published: 19 July 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fungal Pathogenesis in Humans: The Growing Threat)
The dermatophyte Trichophyton rubrum is the major fungal pathogen of skin, hair, and nails that uses keratinized substrates as the primary nutrients during infection. Few strategies are available that permit a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in the interaction of T. rubrum with the host because of the limitations of models mimicking this interaction. Dual RNA-seq is a powerful tool to unravel this complex interaction since it enables simultaneous evaluation of the transcriptome of two organisms. Using this technology in an in vitro model of co-culture, this study evaluated the transcriptional profile of genes involved in fungus-host interactions in 24 h. Our data demonstrated the induction of glyoxylate cycle genes, ERG6 and TERG_00916, which encodes a carboxylic acid transporter that may improve the assimilation of nutrients and fungal survival in the host. Furthermore, genes encoding keratinolytic proteases were also induced. In human keratinocytes (HaCat) cells, the SLC11A1, RNASE7, and CSF2 genes were induced and the products of these genes are known to have antimicrobial activity. In addition, the FLG and KRT1 genes involved in the epithelial barrier integrity were inhibited. This analysis showed the modulation of important genes involved in T. rubrum–host interaction, which could represent potential antifungal targets for the treatment of dermatophytoses. View Full-Text
Keywords: dermatophytes; ERG6; epithelial barrier; glyoxylate cycle; fungal-host interaction dermatophytes; ERG6; epithelial barrier; glyoxylate cycle; fungal-host interaction
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Petrucelli, M.F.; Peronni, K.; Sanches, P.R.; Komoto, T.T.; Matsuda, J.B.; Silva, W.A., Jr.; Beleboni, R.O.; Martinez-Rossi, N.M.; Marins, M.; Fachin, A.L. Dual RNA-Seq Analysis of Trichophyton rubrum and HaCat Keratinocyte Co-Culture Highlights Important Genes for Fungal-Host Interaction. Genes 2018, 9, 362.

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