Next Article in Journal
MicroRNA-106a-5p Inhibited C2C12 Myogenesis via Targeting PIK3R1 and Modulating the PI3K/AKT Signaling
Next Article in Special Issue
Strengthening the One Health Agenda: The Role of Molecular Epidemiology in Aspergillus Threat Management
Previous Article in Journal
SEGF: A Novel Method for Gene Fusion Detection from Single-End Next-Generation Sequencing Data
Previous Article in Special Issue
The Transcription Factor ZafA Regulates the Homeostatic and Adaptive Response to Zinc Starvation in Aspergillus fumigatus
Article Menu
Issue 7 (July) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessReview
Genes 2018, 9(7), 332; https://doi.org/10.3390/genes9070332

Host-Pathogen Interactions Mediated by MDR Transporters in Fungi: As Pleiotropic as it Gets!

1
Department of Bioengineering, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, 1049-001 Lisbon, Portugal
2
Biological Sciences Research Group, iBB—Institute for Bioengineering and Biosciences, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, 1049-001 Lisboa, Portugal
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 18 May 2018 / Revised: 21 June 2018 / Accepted: 27 June 2018 / Published: 2 July 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fungal Pathogenesis in Humans: The Growing Threat)
Full-Text   |   PDF [2494 KB, uploaded 2 July 2018]   |  

Abstract

Fungal infections caused by Candida, Aspergillus, and Cryptococcus species are an increasing problem worldwide, associated with very high mortality rates. The successful prevalence of these human pathogens is due to their ability to thrive in stressful host niche colonization sites, to tolerate host immune system-induced stress, and to resist antifungal drugs. This review focuses on the key role played by multidrug resistance (MDR) transporters, belonging to the ATP-binding cassette (ABC), and the major facilitator superfamilies (MFS), in mediating fungal resistance to pathogenesis-related stresses. These clearly include the extrusion of antifungal drugs, with C. albicans CDR1 and MDR1 genes, and corresponding homologs in other fungal pathogens, playing a key role in this phenomenon. More recently, however, clues on the transcriptional regulation and physiological roles of MDR transporters, including the transport of lipids, ions, and small metabolites, have emerged, linking these transporters to important pathogenesis features, such as resistance to host niche environments, biofilm formation, immune system evasion, and virulence. The wider view of the activity of MDR transporters provided in this review highlights their relevance beyond drug resistance and the need to develop therapeutic strategies that successfully face the challenges posed by the pleiotropic nature of these transporters. View Full-Text
Keywords: fungal pathogens; multidrug transporters; host-pathogen interaction; virulence fungal pathogens; multidrug transporters; host-pathogen interaction; virulence
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Cavalheiro, M.; Pais, P.; Galocha, M.; Teixeira, M.C. Host-Pathogen Interactions Mediated by MDR Transporters in Fungi: As Pleiotropic as it Gets! Genes 2018, 9, 332.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Genes EISSN 2073-4425 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top