Next Article in Journal
Analysis of Genetic Diversity and Population Structure of Sesame Accessions from Africa and Asia as Major Centers of Its Cultivation
Previous Article in Journal
De Novo Transcriptome Sequencing of Desert Herbaceous Achnatherum splendens (Achnatherum) Seedlings and Identification of Salt Tolerance Genes
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle

Bioinformatics Analysis of MAPKKK Family Genes in Medicago truncatula

Key Laboratory of Molecular Cytogenetic and Genetic Breeding of Heilongjiang Province, College of Life Science and Technology, Harbin Normal University, Harbin 150025, China
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contribute equally to this work.
Genes 2016, 7(4), 13;
Received: 31 December 2015 / Revised: 25 March 2016 / Accepted: 29 March 2016 / Published: 4 April 2016
(This article belongs to the Section Molecular Genetics and Genomics)
PDF [4748 KB, uploaded 11 April 2016]


Mitogen‐activated protein kinase kinase kinase (MAPKKK) is a component of the MAPK cascade pathway that plays an important role in plant growth, development, and response to abiotic stress, the functions of which have been well characterized in several plant species, such as Arabidopsis, rice, and maize. In this study, we performed genome‐wide and systemic bioinformatics analysis of MAPKKK family genes in Medicago truncatula. In total, there were 73 MAPKKK family members identified by search of homologs, and they were classified into three subfamilies, MEKK, ZIK, and RAF. Based on the genomic duplication function, 72 MtMAPKKK genes were located throughout all chromosomes, but they cluster in different chromosomes. Using microarray data and high‐throughput sequencing‐data, we assessed their expression profiles in growth and development processes; these results provided evidence for exploring their important functions in developmental regulation, especially in the nodulation process. Furthermore, we investigated their expression in abiotic stresses by RNA‐seq, which confirmed their critical roles in signal transduction and regulation processes under stress. In summary, our genome‐wide, systemic characterization and expressional analysis of MtMAPKKK genes will provide insights that will be useful for characterizing the molecular functions of these genes in M. truncatula. View Full-Text
Keywords: Medicago truncatula; MAPKKK; phylogenetic analysis; expression analysis; abiotic stresses Medicago truncatula; MAPKKK; phylogenetic analysis; expression analysis; abiotic stresses

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Supplementary material


Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Li, W.; Xu, H.; Liu, Y.; Song, L.; Guo, C.; Shu, Y. Bioinformatics Analysis of MAPKKK Family Genes in Medicago truncatula. Genes 2016, 7, 13.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Genes EISSN 2073-4425 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top