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Changing Histopathological Diagnostics by Genome-Based Tumor Classification

by Michael Kloth 1,2,* and Reinhard Buettner 1,2
1
Institute of Pathology, University Hospital Cologne, Kerpener Str. 62, Cologne D-50937, Germany
2
Center for Integrated Oncology Cologne-Bonn, Cologne D-50937, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Genes 2014, 5(2), 444-459; https://doi.org/10.3390/genes5020444
Received: 7 January 2014 / Revised: 5 May 2014 / Accepted: 8 May 2014 / Published: 28 May 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Grand Celebration: 10th Anniversary of the Human Genome Project)
Traditionally, tumors are classified by histopathological criteria, i.e., based on their specific morphological appearances. Consequently, current therapeutic decisions in oncology are strongly influenced by histology rather than underlying molecular or genomic aberrations. The increase of information on molecular changes however, enabled by the Human Genome Project and the International Cancer Genome Consortium as well as the manifold advances in molecular biology and high-throughput sequencing techniques, inaugurated the integration of genomic information into disease classification. Furthermore, in some cases it became evident that former classifications needed major revision and adaption. Such adaptations are often required by understanding the pathogenesis of a disease from a specific molecular alteration, using this molecular driver for targeted and highly effective therapies. Altogether, reclassifications should lead to higher information content of the underlying diagnoses, reflecting their molecular pathogenesis and resulting in optimized and individual therapeutic decisions. The objective of this article is to summarize some particularly important examples of genome-based classification approaches and associated therapeutic concepts. In addition to reviewing disease specific markers, we focus on potentially therapeutic or predictive markers and the relevance of molecular diagnostics in disease monitoring. View Full-Text
Keywords: human genome project; cancer genomics; tumor classification; targeted therapies human genome project; cancer genomics; tumor classification; targeted therapies
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Kloth, M.; Buettner, R. Changing Histopathological Diagnostics by Genome-Based Tumor Classification. Genes 2014, 5, 444-459.

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