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Next-Generation Digital Histopathology of the Tumor Microenvironment

Institute of Pathophysiology and Allergy Research, Center for Pathophysiology, Infectiology and Immunology, Medical University of Vienna, 1090 Vienna, Austria
TissueGnostics GmbH, 1020 Vienna, Austria
Translational Research Institute, 37 Kent Street, Woolloongabba, QLD 4102, Australia
School of Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Health, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, QLD 4059, Australia
TissueGnostics SRL, 700028 Iasi, Romania
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Gael Roue
Genes 2021, 12(4), 538;
Received: 11 March 2021 / Revised: 30 March 2021 / Accepted: 1 April 2021 / Published: 7 April 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Genetic Complexity of Hormone Sensitive Cancers)
Progress in cancer research is substantially dependent on innovative technologies that permit a concerted analysis of the tumor microenvironment and the cellular phenotypes resulting from somatic mutations and post-translational modifications. In view of a large number of genes, multiplied by differential splicing as well as post-translational protein modifications, the ability to identify and quantify the actual phenotypes of individual cell populations in situ, i.e., in their tissue environment, has become a prerequisite for understanding tumorigenesis and cancer progression. The need for quantitative analyses has led to a renaissance of optical instruments and imaging techniques. With the emergence of precision medicine, automated analysis of a constantly increasing number of cellular markers and their measurement in spatial context have become increasingly necessary to understand the molecular mechanisms that lead to different pathways of disease progression in individual patients. In this review, we summarize the joint effort that academia and industry have undertaken to establish methods and protocols for molecular profiling and immunophenotyping of cancer tissues for next-generation digital histopathology—which is characterized by the use of whole-slide imaging (brightfield, widefield fluorescence, confocal, multispectral, and/or multiplexing technologies) combined with state-of-the-art image cytometry and advanced methods for machine and deep learning. View Full-Text
Keywords: next-generation digital histopathology; tissue cytometry; multiplexing; RNA ISH; cancer; tumor immune microenvironment; tumor microenvironment next-generation digital histopathology; tissue cytometry; multiplexing; RNA ISH; cancer; tumor immune microenvironment; tumor microenvironment
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MDPI and ACS Style

Mungenast, F.; Fernando, A.; Nica, R.; Boghiu, B.; Lungu, B.; Batra, J.; Ecker, R.C. Next-Generation Digital Histopathology of the Tumor Microenvironment. Genes 2021, 12, 538.

AMA Style

Mungenast F, Fernando A, Nica R, Boghiu B, Lungu B, Batra J, Ecker RC. Next-Generation Digital Histopathology of the Tumor Microenvironment. Genes. 2021; 12(4):538.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Mungenast, Felicitas, Achala Fernando, Robert Nica, Bogdan Boghiu, Bianca Lungu, Jyotsna Batra, and Rupert C. Ecker. 2021. "Next-Generation Digital Histopathology of the Tumor Microenvironment" Genes 12, no. 4: 538.

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