Next Article in Journal
Krüppel-Like Factor 4 and Its Activator APTO-253 Induce NOXA-Mediated, p53-Independent Apoptosis in Triple-Negative Breast Cancer Cells
Previous Article in Journal
Autosomal Recessive Retinitis Pigmentosa Associated with Three Novel REEP6 Variants in Chinese Population
Previous Article in Special Issue
Genetic Drivers of Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma: Aberrant Splicing Events, Mutational Burden, HPV Infection and Future Targets
Open AccessReview

Next-Generation Digital Histopathology of the Tumor Microenvironment

1
Institute of Pathophysiology and Allergy Research, Center for Pathophysiology, Infectiology and Immunology, Medical University of Vienna, 1090 Vienna, Austria
2
TissueGnostics GmbH, 1020 Vienna, Austria
3
Translational Research Institute, 37 Kent Street, Woolloongabba, QLD 4102, Australia
4
School of Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Health, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, QLD 4059, Australia
5
TissueGnostics SRL, 700028 Iasi, Romania
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Gael Roue
Genes 2021, 12(4), 538; https://doi.org/10.3390/genes12040538
Received: 11 March 2021 / Revised: 30 March 2021 / Accepted: 1 April 2021 / Published: 7 April 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Genetic Complexity of Hormone Sensitive Cancers)
Progress in cancer research is substantially dependent on innovative technologies that permit a concerted analysis of the tumor microenvironment and the cellular phenotypes resulting from somatic mutations and post-translational modifications. In view of a large number of genes, multiplied by differential splicing as well as post-translational protein modifications, the ability to identify and quantify the actual phenotypes of individual cell populations in situ, i.e., in their tissue environment, has become a prerequisite for understanding tumorigenesis and cancer progression. The need for quantitative analyses has led to a renaissance of optical instruments and imaging techniques. With the emergence of precision medicine, automated analysis of a constantly increasing number of cellular markers and their measurement in spatial context have become increasingly necessary to understand the molecular mechanisms that lead to different pathways of disease progression in individual patients. In this review, we summarize the joint effort that academia and industry have undertaken to establish methods and protocols for molecular profiling and immunophenotyping of cancer tissues for next-generation digital histopathology—which is characterized by the use of whole-slide imaging (brightfield, widefield fluorescence, confocal, multispectral, and/or multiplexing technologies) combined with state-of-the-art image cytometry and advanced methods for machine and deep learning. View Full-Text
Keywords: next-generation digital histopathology; tissue cytometry; multiplexing; RNA ISH; cancer; tumor immune microenvironment; tumor microenvironment next-generation digital histopathology; tissue cytometry; multiplexing; RNA ISH; cancer; tumor immune microenvironment; tumor microenvironment
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Mungenast, F.; Fernando, A.; Nica, R.; Boghiu, B.; Lungu, B.; Batra, J.; Ecker, R.C. Next-Generation Digital Histopathology of the Tumor Microenvironment. Genes 2021, 12, 538. https://doi.org/10.3390/genes12040538

AMA Style

Mungenast F, Fernando A, Nica R, Boghiu B, Lungu B, Batra J, Ecker RC. Next-Generation Digital Histopathology of the Tumor Microenvironment. Genes. 2021; 12(4):538. https://doi.org/10.3390/genes12040538

Chicago/Turabian Style

Mungenast, Felicitas; Fernando, Achala; Nica, Robert; Boghiu, Bogdan; Lungu, Bianca; Batra, Jyotsna; Ecker, Rupert C. 2021. "Next-Generation Digital Histopathology of the Tumor Microenvironment" Genes 12, no. 4: 538. https://doi.org/10.3390/genes12040538

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Search more from Scilit
 
Search
Back to TopTop