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The Unique Biology behind the Early Onset of Breast Cancer

1
Department of Pathology, School of Medical Sciences, Health Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kelantan 16150, Malaysia
2
Department of Chemical Pathology, School of Medical Sciences, Health Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kelantan 16150, Malaysia
3
Breast Cancer Awareness & Research Unit, Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kelantan 16150, Malaysia
4
Department of Surgery, School of Medical Sciences, Health Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kelantan 16150, Malaysia
5
Human Genome Centre, School of Medical Sciences, Health Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kelantan 16150, Malaysia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Carmen Criscitiello
Genes 2021, 12(3), 372; https://doi.org/10.3390/genes12030372
Received: 1 February 2021 / Revised: 26 February 2021 / Accepted: 2 March 2021 / Published: 5 March 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Breast Cancer Genetics: Diagnostic and Treatment)
Breast cancer commonly affects women of older age; however, in developing countries, up to 20% of breast cancer cases present in young women (younger than 40 years as defined by oncology literature). Breast cancer in young women is often defined to be aggressive in nature, usually of high histological grade at the time of diagnosis and negative for endocrine receptors with poor overall survival rate. Several researchers have attributed this aggressive nature to a hidden unique biology. However, findings in this aspect remain controversial. Thus, in this article, we aimed to review published work addressing somatic mutations, chromosome copy number variants, single nucleotide polymorphisms, differential gene expression, microRNAs and gene methylation profile of early-onset breast cancer, as well as its altered pathways resulting from those aberrations. Distinct biology behind early-onset of breast cancer was clear among estrogen receptor-positive and sporadic cases. However, further research is needed to determine and validate specific novel markers, which may help in customizing therapy for this group of patients. View Full-Text
Keywords: early-onset breast cancer; differential gene expression; somatic mutations; breast cancer in young age; copy number variants; gene methylation; extracellular matrix protein-coding genes early-onset breast cancer; differential gene expression; somatic mutations; breast cancer in young age; copy number variants; gene methylation; extracellular matrix protein-coding genes
MDPI and ACS Style

Siddig, A.; Tengku Din, T.A.D.A.-A.; Mohd Nafi, S.N.; Yahya, M.M.; Sulong, S.; Wan Abdul Rahman, W.F. The Unique Biology behind the Early Onset of Breast Cancer. Genes 2021, 12, 372. https://doi.org/10.3390/genes12030372

AMA Style

Siddig A, Tengku Din TADA-A, Mohd Nafi SN, Yahya MM, Sulong S, Wan Abdul Rahman WF. The Unique Biology behind the Early Onset of Breast Cancer. Genes. 2021; 12(3):372. https://doi.org/10.3390/genes12030372

Chicago/Turabian Style

Siddig, Alaa, Tengku A.D.A.-A. Tengku Din, Siti N. Mohd Nafi, Maya M. Yahya, Sarina Sulong, and Wan F. Wan Abdul Rahman. 2021. "The Unique Biology behind the Early Onset of Breast Cancer" Genes 12, no. 3: 372. https://doi.org/10.3390/genes12030372

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