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Article

Durability of Implanted Low-Density Polyacrylamide Hydrogel Used as a Scaffold for Microencapsulated Molecular Probes inside Small Fish

1
Institute of Biology, Irkutsk State University, 664025 Irkutsk, Russia
2
Baikal Research Centre, 664003 Irkutsk, Russia
3
East Siberian Institute of Medical and Ecological Research, 665827 Angarsk, Russia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Abdel-Hamid I. Mourad
Polymers 2022, 14(19), 3956; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym14193956
Received: 20 August 2022 / Revised: 16 September 2022 / Accepted: 19 September 2022 / Published: 22 September 2022
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Durability and Degradation of Polymeric Materials)
Implantable sensors based on shaped biocompatible hydrogels are now being extensively developed for various physiological tasks, but they are usually difficult to implant into small animals. In this study, we tested the long-term in vivo functionality of pH-sensitive implants based on amorphous 2.7% polyacrylamide hydrogel with the microencapsulated fluorescent probe SNARF-1. The sensor was easy to manufacture and introduce into the tissues of a small fish Danio rerio, which is the common model object in biomedical research. Histological examination revealed partial degradation of the gel by the 7th day after injection, but it was not the case on the 1st day. Using the hydrogel sensor, we were able to trace the interstitial pH in the fish muscles under normal and hypercapnic conditions for at least two days after the implantation. Thus, despite later immune response, amorphous polyacrylamide is fully suitable for preparing implantable sensors for various mid-term physiological experiments on small fishes. The proposed approach can be further developed to create implantable sensors for animals with similar anatomy. View Full-Text
Keywords: polyacrylamide; hydrogel; non-biodegradable; implant; fish; Danio rerio polyacrylamide; hydrogel; non-biodegradable; implant; fish; Danio rerio
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MDPI and ACS Style

Shchapova, E.; Titov, E.; Gurkov, A.; Nazarova, A.; Borvinskaya, E.; Timofeyev, M. Durability of Implanted Low-Density Polyacrylamide Hydrogel Used as a Scaffold for Microencapsulated Molecular Probes inside Small Fish. Polymers 2022, 14, 3956. https://doi.org/10.3390/polym14193956

AMA Style

Shchapova E, Titov E, Gurkov A, Nazarova A, Borvinskaya E, Timofeyev M. Durability of Implanted Low-Density Polyacrylamide Hydrogel Used as a Scaffold for Microencapsulated Molecular Probes inside Small Fish. Polymers. 2022; 14(19):3956. https://doi.org/10.3390/polym14193956

Chicago/Turabian Style

Shchapova, Ekaterina, Evgeniy Titov, Anton Gurkov, Anna Nazarova, Ekaterina Borvinskaya, and Maxim Timofeyev. 2022. "Durability of Implanted Low-Density Polyacrylamide Hydrogel Used as a Scaffold for Microencapsulated Molecular Probes inside Small Fish" Polymers 14, no. 19: 3956. https://doi.org/10.3390/polym14193956

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