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Article

Rapid Ultrasound-Assisted Starch Extraction from Sago Pith Waste (SPW) for the Fabrication of Sustainable Bioplastic Film

1
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 50603, Malaysia
2
Department of Chemical Engineering, Lee Kong Chian Faculty of Engineering and Science, Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman, Kajang 43000, Malaysia
3
Centre of Photonics and Advanced Materials Research, Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman, Kajang 43000, Malaysia
4
Future Technology Research Center, National Yunlin University of Science and Technology, Douliou 64002, Taiwan
5
Centre of Separation Science and Technology, Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 50603, Malaysia
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Cristina Cazan
Polymers 2021, 13(24), 4398; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym13244398
Received: 14 November 2021 / Revised: 3 December 2021 / Accepted: 7 December 2021 / Published: 15 December 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Sustainable Polymeric Materials)
The present study was conducted to optimize the extraction yield of starch from sago (Metroxylon sagu) pith waste (SPW) with the assistance of ultrasound ensued by the transformation of extracted starch into a higher value-added bioplastic film. Sago starch with extraction yield of 71.4% was successfully obtained using the ultrasound-assisted extraction, with the following conditions: particle size <250 µm, solid loading of 10 wt.%, ultrasonic amplitude of 70% and duty cycle of 83% in 5 min. The rapid ultrasound approach was proven to be more effective than the conventional extraction with 60.9% extraction yield in 30 min. Ultrasound-extracted starch was found to exhibit higher starch purity than the control starch as indicated by the presence of lower protein and ash contents. The starch granules were found to have irregular and disrupted surfaces after ultrasonication. The disrupted starch granules reduced the particle size and increased the swelling power of starch which was beneficial in producing a film-forming solution. The ultrasound-extracted sago starch was subsequently used to prepare a bioplastic film via solution casting method. A brownish bioplastic film with tensile strength of 0.9 ± 0.1 MPa, Young’s modulus of 22 ± 0.8 MPa, elongation at break of 13.6 ± 2.0% and water vapour permeability (WVP) of 1.11 ± 0.1 × 10−8 g m−1 s−1 Pa−1 was obtained, suggesting its feasibility as bioplastic material. These findings provide a means of utilization for SPW which is in line with the contemporary trend towards greener and sustainable products and processes. View Full-Text
Keywords: ultrasound; sago pith waste; sago starch; extraction yield; starch-based bioplastic ultrasound; sago pith waste; sago starch; extraction yield; starch-based bioplastic
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MDPI and ACS Style

Tan, S.X.; Andriyana, A.; Lim, S.; Ong, H.C.; Pang, Y.L.; Ngoh, G.C. Rapid Ultrasound-Assisted Starch Extraction from Sago Pith Waste (SPW) for the Fabrication of Sustainable Bioplastic Film. Polymers 2021, 13, 4398. https://doi.org/10.3390/polym13244398

AMA Style

Tan SX, Andriyana A, Lim S, Ong HC, Pang YL, Ngoh GC. Rapid Ultrasound-Assisted Starch Extraction from Sago Pith Waste (SPW) for the Fabrication of Sustainable Bioplastic Film. Polymers. 2021; 13(24):4398. https://doi.org/10.3390/polym13244398

Chicago/Turabian Style

Tan, Shiou X., Andri Andriyana, Steven Lim, Hwai C. Ong, Yean L. Pang, and Gek C. Ngoh. 2021. "Rapid Ultrasound-Assisted Starch Extraction from Sago Pith Waste (SPW) for the Fabrication of Sustainable Bioplastic Film" Polymers 13, no. 24: 4398. https://doi.org/10.3390/polym13244398

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