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Article

Role of Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch-Derived Cellulose in Improving the Sonocatalytic Activity of Silver-Doped Titanium Dioxide

1
Department of Chemical Engineering, Lee Kong Chian Faculty of Engineering and Science, Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman, Kajang 43000, Malaysia
2
Centre for Photonics and Advanced Materials Research, Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman, Kajang 43000, Malaysia
3
Nanotechnology and Catalysis Research Centre (NANOCAT), Institute of Advanced Studies (IAS), Universiti Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 50603, Malaysia
4
School of Chemical Engineering, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Nibong Tebal 14300, Malaysia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Xiao-Feng Sun
Polymers 2021, 13(20), 3530; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym13203530
Received: 24 August 2021 / Revised: 28 September 2021 / Accepted: 6 October 2021 / Published: 14 October 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomass Molecular Engineering)
In this study, a novel cellulose/Ag/TiO2 nanocomposite was successfully synthesized via the hydrothermal method. The cellulose extracted from oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB) could address the disposal issue created by OPEFB biomass. Characterization studies such as FESEM, EDX, HRTEM, XRD, FTIR, UV–Vis DRS, PL, XPS, and surface analysis were conducted. It was observed that the incorporation of cellulose could hinder the agglomeration, reduce the band gap energy to 3 eV, increase the specific surface area to 150.22 m3/g, and lower the recombination rate of the generated electron-hole pairs compared to Ag/TiO2 nanoparticles. The excellent properties enhance the sonocatalytic degradation efficiency of 10 mg/L Congo red (up to 81.3% after 10 min ultrasonic irradiation) in the presence of 0.5 g/L cellulose/Ag/TiO2 at 24 kHz and 280 W. The improvement of catalytic activity was due to the surface plasmon resonance effect of Ag and numerous hydroxyl groups on cellulose that capture the holes, which delay the recombination rate of the charge carriers in TiO2. This study demonstrated an alternative approach in the development of an efficient sonocatalyst for the sonocatalytic degradation of Congo red. View Full-Text
Keywords: titanium dioxide; cellulose; silver doping; sonocatalysis; Congo red titanium dioxide; cellulose; silver doping; sonocatalysis; Congo red
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MDPI and ACS Style

Chai, Y.D.; Pang, Y.L.; Lim, S.; Chong, W.C.; Lai, C.W.; Abdullah, A.Z. Role of Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch-Derived Cellulose in Improving the Sonocatalytic Activity of Silver-Doped Titanium Dioxide. Polymers 2021, 13, 3530. https://doi.org/10.3390/polym13203530

AMA Style

Chai YD, Pang YL, Lim S, Chong WC, Lai CW, Abdullah AZ. Role of Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch-Derived Cellulose in Improving the Sonocatalytic Activity of Silver-Doped Titanium Dioxide. Polymers. 2021; 13(20):3530. https://doi.org/10.3390/polym13203530

Chicago/Turabian Style

Chai, Yi D., Yean L. Pang, Steven Lim, Woon C. Chong, Chin W. Lai, and Ahmad Z. Abdullah 2021. "Role of Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch-Derived Cellulose in Improving the Sonocatalytic Activity of Silver-Doped Titanium Dioxide" Polymers 13, no. 20: 3530. https://doi.org/10.3390/polym13203530

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