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Review

Tuning the Properties of PNIPAm-Based Hydrogel Scaffolds for Cartilage Tissue Engineering

1
Biomedical Engineering Graduate Program, Schulich School of Engineering, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB T2N 1N4, Canada
2
Department of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering, Schulich School of Engineering, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB T2N 1N4, Canada
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Jin-Jia Hu and Solaiman Tarafder
Polymers 2021, 13(18), 3154; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym13183154
Received: 31 August 2021 / Revised: 13 September 2021 / Accepted: 14 September 2021 / Published: 17 September 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polymer Scaffolds for Tissue Engineering)
Poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAm) is a three-dimensional (3D) crosslinked polymer that can interact with human cells and play an important role in the development of tissue morphogenesis in both in vitro and in vivo conditions. PNIPAm-based scaffolds possess many desirable structural and physical properties required for tissue regeneration, but insufficient mechanical strength, biocompatibility, and biomimicry for tissue development remain obstacles for their application in tissue engineering. The structural integrity and physical properties of the hydrogels depend on the crosslinks formed between polymer chains during synthesis. A variety of design variables including crosslinker content, the combination of natural and synthetic polymers, and solvent type have been explored over the past decade to develop PNIPAm-based scaffolds with optimized properties suitable for tissue engineering applications. These design parameters have been implemented to provide hydrogel scaffolds with dynamic and spatially patterned cues that mimic the biological environment and guide the required cellular functions for cartilage tissue regeneration. The current advances on tuning the properties of PNIPAm-based scaffolds were searched for on Google Scholar, PubMed, and Web of Science. This review provides a comprehensive overview of the scaffolding properties of PNIPAm-based hydrogels and the effects of synthesis-solvent and crosslinking density on tuning these properties. Finally, the challenges and perspectives of considering these two design variables for developing PNIPAm-based scaffolds are outlined. View Full-Text
Keywords: PNIPAm; synthesis-solvent; crosslinking; cartilage; tissue engineering; scaffold PNIPAm; synthesis-solvent; crosslinking; cartilage; tissue engineering; scaffold
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MDPI and ACS Style

Rana, M.M.; De la Hoz Siegler, H. Tuning the Properties of PNIPAm-Based Hydrogel Scaffolds for Cartilage Tissue Engineering. Polymers 2021, 13, 3154. https://doi.org/10.3390/polym13183154

AMA Style

Rana MM, De la Hoz Siegler H. Tuning the Properties of PNIPAm-Based Hydrogel Scaffolds for Cartilage Tissue Engineering. Polymers. 2021; 13(18):3154. https://doi.org/10.3390/polym13183154

Chicago/Turabian Style

Rana, Md M., and Hector De la Hoz Siegler. 2021. "Tuning the Properties of PNIPAm-Based Hydrogel Scaffolds for Cartilage Tissue Engineering" Polymers 13, no. 18: 3154. https://doi.org/10.3390/polym13183154

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