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Article

Influence of HRGO Nanoplatelets on Behaviour and Processing of PMMA Bone Cement for Surgery

1
Departamento de Ciencia de los Materiales and CIME, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, E28040 Madrid, Spain
2
Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, E28040 Madrid, Spain
3
Departamento de Ingeniería Electrónica and ISOM, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, E28040 Madrid, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Georgios Kritikos and Roberto De Santis
Polymers 2021, 13(12), 2027; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym13122027
Received: 6 May 2021 / Revised: 14 June 2021 / Accepted: 18 June 2021 / Published: 21 June 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Intrinsically Biocompatible Polymer Systems II)
Bone cement, frequently based on poly (methyl methacrylate), is commonly used in different arthroplasty surgical procedures and its use is essential for prosthesis fixation. However, its manufacturing process reaches high temperatures (up to 120 °C), producing necrosis in the patients’ surrounding tissues. To help avoid this problem, the addition of graphene could delay the polymerisation of the methyl methacrylate as it could, simultaneously, favour the optimisation of the composite material’s properties. In this work, we address the effect of different percentages of highly reduced graphene oxide with different wt.% (0.10, 0.50, and 1.00) and surface densities (150, 300, 500, and 750 m2/g) on the physical, mechanical, and thermal properties of commercial poly (methyl methacrylate)-based bone cement and its processing. It was noted that a lower sintering temperature was achieved with this addition, making it less harmful to use in surgery and reducing its adverse effects. In contrast, the variation of the density of the materials did not introduce significant changes, which indicates that the addition of highly reduced graphene oxide would not significantly increase bone porosity. Lastly, the mechanical properties (strength, elastic modulus, and fracture toughness) were reduced by almost 20%. Nevertheless, their typical values are high enough that these new materials could still fulfil their structural function. In conclusion, this paper presents a way to control the sintering temperature, without significant degradation of the mechanical performance, by adding highly reduced graphene oxide so that local necrosis of bone cement based on poly (methyl methacrylate) used in surgery is avoided. View Full-Text
Keywords: polymethylmethacrylate; highly reduced graphene oxide; mechanical behaviour; bone cement; microstructure; surgery polymethylmethacrylate; highly reduced graphene oxide; mechanical behaviour; bone cement; microstructure; surgery
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MDPI and ACS Style

Orellana, J.; Pastor, Y.Y.; Calle, F.; Pastor, J.Y. Influence of HRGO Nanoplatelets on Behaviour and Processing of PMMA Bone Cement for Surgery. Polymers 2021, 13, 2027. https://doi.org/10.3390/polym13122027

AMA Style

Orellana J, Pastor YY, Calle F, Pastor JY. Influence of HRGO Nanoplatelets on Behaviour and Processing of PMMA Bone Cement for Surgery. Polymers. 2021; 13(12):2027. https://doi.org/10.3390/polym13122027

Chicago/Turabian Style

Orellana, Jaime, Ynés Yohana Pastor, Fernando Calle, and José Ygnacio Pastor. 2021. "Influence of HRGO Nanoplatelets on Behaviour and Processing of PMMA Bone Cement for Surgery" Polymers 13, no. 12: 2027. https://doi.org/10.3390/polym13122027

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