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Article

Biomimetic Mineralization on 3D Printed PLA Scaffolds: On the Response of Human Primary Osteoblasts Spheroids and In Vivo Implantation

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COPPE/Program of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro—UFRJ, Rio de Janeiro, RJ 21941-599, Brazil
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Clinical Research Laboratory in Dentistry, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Rua Mario Santos Braga, 28/4° Andar, Niterói, RJ 24020-140, Brazil
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Post-Graduation Program in Science & Biotechnology, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Rua Mario Santos Braga, 28/4° Andar, Niterói, RJ 24220-140, Brazil
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Clinical Research Unit, Antônio Pedro Hospital, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Rua Mario Santos Braga, 28/4° Andar, Niterói, RJ 24220-140, Brazil
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Oral Surgery Department, Dentistry School, Universidade Iguaçu, Avenida Abílio Augusto Távora, 2134, Nova Iguaçu, RJ 26260-045, Brazil
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Oral Surgery Department, Dentistry School, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Rua Mario Santos Braga, 28/4° Andar, Niterói, RJ 24020-140, Brazil
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Department of Oral Diagnosis, Dentistry School, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Rua Mario Santos Braga, 28/4° Andar, Niterói, RJ 24020-140, Brazil
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Polymers 2021, 13(1), 74; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym13010074
Received: 28 November 2020 / Revised: 18 December 2020 / Accepted: 23 December 2020 / Published: 27 December 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polymeric Materials in 3D and 4D Printing)
This study aimed to assess the response of 3D printed polylactic acid (PLA) scaffolds biomimetically coated with apatite on human primary osteoblast (HOb) spheroids and evaluate the biological response to its association with Bone Morphogenetic Protein 2 (rhBMP-2) in rat calvaria. PLA scaffolds were produced via 3D printing, soaked in simulated body fluid (SBF) solution to promote apatite deposition, and characterized by physical-chemical, morphological, and mechanical properties. PLA-CaP scaffolds with interconnected porous and mechanical properties suitable for bone repairing were produced with reproducibility. The in vitro biological response was assessed with human primary osteoblast spheroids. Increased cell adhesion and the rise of in vitro release of growth factors (Platelet-Derived Growth Factor (PDGF), Basic Fibroblast Growth Factor (bFGF), Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) was observed for PLA-CaP scaffolds, when pre-treated with fetal bovine serum (FBS). This pre-treatment with FBS was done in a way to enhance the adsorption of serum proteins, increasing the number of bioactive sites on the surface of scaffolds, and to partially mimic in vivo interactions. The in vivo analysis was conducted through the implantation of 3D printed PLA scaffolds either alone, coated with apatite (PLA-CaP) or PLA-CaP loaded with rhBMP-2 on critical-sized defects (8 mm) of rat calvaria. PLA-CaP+rhBMP2 presented higher values of newly formed bone (NFB) than other groups at all in vivo experimental periods (p < 0.05), attaining 44.85% of NFB after six months. These findings indicated two new potential candidates as alternatives to autogenous bone grafts for long-term treatment: (i) 3D-printed PLA-CaP scaffold associated with spheroids, since it can reduce the time of repair in situ by expression of biomolecules and growth factors; and (ii) 3D-printed PLA-CaP functionalized rhBMP2 scaffold, a biocompatible, bioactive biomaterial, with osteoconductivity and osteoinductivity. View Full-Text
Keywords: 3D printing; biomimetic; poly (lactic acid); spheroids; bone repair; 3D printed scaffold; bone morphogenetic protein 2; biomimetic apatite 3D printing; biomimetic; poly (lactic acid); spheroids; bone repair; 3D printed scaffold; bone morphogenetic protein 2; biomimetic apatite
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MDPI and ACS Style

Maia-Pinto, M.O.C.; Brochado, A.C.B.; Teixeira, B.N.; Sartoretto, S.C.; Uzeda, M.J.; Alves, A.T.N.N.; Alves, G.G.; Calasans-Maia, M.D.; Thiré, R.M.S.M. Biomimetic Mineralization on 3D Printed PLA Scaffolds: On the Response of Human Primary Osteoblasts Spheroids and In Vivo Implantation. Polymers 2021, 13, 74. https://doi.org/10.3390/polym13010074

AMA Style

Maia-Pinto MOC, Brochado ACB, Teixeira BN, Sartoretto SC, Uzeda MJ, Alves ATNN, Alves GG, Calasans-Maia MD, Thiré RMSM. Biomimetic Mineralization on 3D Printed PLA Scaffolds: On the Response of Human Primary Osteoblasts Spheroids and In Vivo Implantation. Polymers. 2021; 13(1):74. https://doi.org/10.3390/polym13010074

Chicago/Turabian Style

Maia-Pinto, Marianna O. C., Ana Carolina B. Brochado, Bruna Nunes Teixeira, Suelen C. Sartoretto, Marcelo J. Uzeda, Adriana T. N. N. Alves, Gutemberg G. Alves, Mônica D. Calasans-Maia, and Rossana M. S. M. Thiré. 2021. "Biomimetic Mineralization on 3D Printed PLA Scaffolds: On the Response of Human Primary Osteoblasts Spheroids and In Vivo Implantation" Polymers 13, no. 1: 74. https://doi.org/10.3390/polym13010074

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