# Effect of Thermal Processing on Flow Properties and Stability of Thickened Fluid Matrices Formulated by Tapioca Starch, Hydroxyl Distarch Phosphate (E-1442), and Xanthan Gum Associating Dysphagia-Friendly Potential

^{*}

## Abstract

**:**

## 1. Introduction

## 2. Materials and Methods

^{+}= 18.0, K

^{+}= 2.4, Ca

^{2+}= 1.6, Mg

^{2+}= 0.8, Cl

^{−}= 14.0, and PO

_{4}

^{3−}= 0.1; calories = 27.2 per 100 g; sugar = 6.7 g per 100 g) and OJ (calories = 37.1 per 100 g; sugar = 7.9 g per 100 g; pH = 3.67) were from well-known beverage manufacturers. Initially, we identified the functional properties (solubility index—SI, swelling power—SP, water holding capacity—WHC, and oil binding capacity—OBC) of the commercial thickeners. Each thickener was incorporated into the fluid bases and formulated into a nectar-like consistency (300 ± 20 mPa.s) for the evaluation of flow and rheological behaviors. The stabilities affected by different processes (80 °C, 3 min; 80 °C, 6 min; 121 °C, 15 min) and the storage conditions were also investigated by comparing the measured apparent viscosity and textural properties before and after a 28 day storage at 4 °C.

#### 2.1. Functional Properties of Thickeners

#### 2.1.1. Solubility Index and Swelling Power

_{0}) sample was weighed into a centrifuge tube and mixed with 10 mL of DW, followed by a 30 min rotary water bath at 60, 70, 80, and 90 °C; after cooling the homogenized sample to room temperature (23 ± 2 °C), the supernatant resulting from a 20 min centrifugation at 2000× g was dried in an oven at 105 °C until reaching constant weight (W

_{sup}) within 24 h, while the sediment was weighed (W

_{sed}) after centrifugation without undergoing further oven drying. The SI and SP were calculated as follows:

_{sup}/W

_{0}) × 100%; SP (g/g) = W

_{sed}/[W

_{0}× (100% − SI)].

#### 2.1.2. Water Holding Capacity (WHC)

_{0}). A total of 10 mL of DW was employed as the absorbing substrate. The sample–substrate mixture was vortexed for 1 min and remained still at 4 or 25 °C for 1 h, after which it was centrifuged at 2000× g for 20 min. After discarding the supernatant portion of the centrifuged mixture, the leftover aquatic counterpart was weighed as W

_{WH}to determine the WHC using the following calculation:

_{WH}− W

_{0})/W

_{0}

#### 2.1.3. Oil Binding Capacity (OBC)

_{0}). The absorbing substrate employed was 10 mL of olive oil instead of DW. The sample–substrate mixture was vortexed for 1 min and remained still at 4 or 25 °C for 1 h, after which it was centrifuged at 2000× g for 20 min. After discarding the supernatant portion of the centrifuged mixture, the leftover oily counterpart was weighed as W

_{OB}, and the OHC was calculated using the following equation:

_{OB}− W

_{0})/W

_{0}.

#### 2.2. Evaluating Flow Properties of Thickened Fluid Matrices with Different Continuous Phases

#### 2.2.1. Sample Preparation for the Measurement of Apparent Viscosity

^{−1}, according to the method described previously [22]. Then, the systematic apparent viscosity data as a function of the thickener weight with 1% for TS and HDP or 0.1% for XG were established.

#### 2.2.2. Flow Properties Evaluation of Thickened Fluid Matrices

_{0}+ Kγ

^{n};

^{n};

^{0.5}= (σ

_{0})

^{0.5}+ K

_{c}γ

^{0.5}.

_{0}: yield stress (Pa); γ: shear rate (s

^{−1}); K: consistency index (Pa·s

^{n}); K

_{c}: Casson model parameter (Pa·s

^{n}); n: flow behavior index.

#### 2.3. Rheological Behavior of Thermally Processed Thickened Fluid Matrices

#### 2.4. Flow and Textural Quality Maintenance of the Thickened Fluid Matrices

#### 2.5. Statistical Analysis

^{®}version 10.0. Each experimental data set is reported as the mean value with a standard deviation based on triplicates. Independent sample t-test and Duncan’s multiple range test based on analysis of variance (ANOVA) were utilized to justify the significance of differences among the mean values with a 95% confidence interval using SPSS (Statistical Package for the Social Science) version 19.0.

## 3. Results and Discussion

#### 3.1. Functional Properties of Thickeners

#### 3.2. Weight-Dependent Apparent Viscosity with Respect to Different Thickeners

#### 3.3. Flow Properties of Formulated Nectar-Like Fluids

_{0}) are related to the swallowing process [24,41,42]. In particular, K is related to the speed of the food bolus movement, n is related to the oral sensation of the food bolus smoothness, and σ

_{0}is related to the ease of swallowing of food boluses [43,44].

_{0}were calculated, as shown in Table 3. Although R

^{2}of the various groups ranged from 0.9987 to 0.9999, the groups in which XG was used as the thickener had σ

_{0}values <0, which shows that the Herschel–Bulkley model is not applicable for XG-thickened continuous bases. Therefore, by adopting the method proposed by Yoon and Yoo [10], the power law was used for the calculation of n and K and the Casson model was used for the calculation of σ

_{0}, as shown in Table 4. It was found that the K and σ

_{0}values were higher in continuous bases thickened with XG and lower in continuous bases thickened with HDP. The opposite tendency was observed with the n values, which were higher in continuous bases thickened with TS followed by continuous bases thickened with HDP and XG. With the same beverage base, the K, n, and σ

_{0}values significantly differed among the various groups (p < 0.05). When TS was used as the thickener, the DW group had the highest K and σ

_{0}values of 0.9334 Pa·s

^{n}and 0.4047 Pa, respectively, and the lowest n value of 0.5835. K was significantly higher in the DW group compared to the other two groups (p < 0.05), and σ

_{0}and n significantly differed among the three groups (p < 0.05). When HDP was used as the thickener, the OJ group had the highest K and σ

_{0}values of 3.8295 Pa·s

^{n}and 2.4338 Pa, respectively, and the lowest n value of 0.3940. The n value of the OJ group was significantly lower than that of the other two groups (p < 0.05), and σ

_{0}and K significantly differed among the three groups (p < 0.05). When XG was used as the thickener, the OJ group exhibited the highest K and σ

_{0}values of 7.5538 Pa·s

^{n}and 6.6054 Pa, respectively, and the lowest n value of 0.1432. The SD group had a significantly lower σ

_{0}value (p < 0.05) and a significantly higher n value compared with the other two groups, and K was significantly different among the various groups (p < 0.05).

^{2}ranged from 0.9970 to 0.9997 for K and n values obtained using the power law and from 0.9120 to 0.9958 for σ

_{0}values obtained using the Casson model, which shows that the power law and Casson models could adequately describe the fluid characteristics of the thickened continuous bases prepared in this study.

_{0}and negatively correlated with n, which is similar to the fluid characteristics of the TS matrices investigated by Chen and Ramaswamy [25]; they measured the flow curves of native tapioca starch using a different brand name of rotational viscometer (Haake Model RV20) and an MV1 spindle considered comparable to our present study. The concentration used in their study is 4% w/v, which is close to our TS-containing sample incorporated into DW (4.505 g/100 mL); however, our TS is a commercial product which had been pre-gelatinized. Therefore, their experimental setup involved the hydrothermal cooking process up to 40 min for modeling the flow curves. The models used in their study are identical to our study. As for the Herschel–Bulkley model, our TS–DW matrices show a good agreement with their time-dependent modeling results: K ranging 0.64–1.08, n ranging 0.42–0.78; however, our σ

_{0}(0.2328) falls beyond their reported lower range (0.41–0.95). As aforementioned, yield index, σ

_{0,}is related to the ease of swallowing of food boluses [43,44]. The commercial TS we employed would be better suited for dysphagia-friendly application. We also noted that the R

^{2}values studied by Chen and Ramaswamy [25], ranging 0.95–0.99, compared to our values ranging 0.9987–0.999; nevertheless, there should not be a clue of better regression results of ours because their experimental framework regarding TS flow curve determination facilitated a more stretched shear rate range up to 200 s

^{−1}.

^{2}was reported to be over 0.95. The flow behavior index modeled by power law of the 1% combined thickener-base containing XG, guar gum, and dextrin (ratio not revealed) gives a considerable low value of 0.24, which is comparable to our XG-containing fluid matrices regardless of the use of DW, SD, or OJ bases with values ranging 0.14–0.18, an indication of better smoothness of mouthfeel.

#### 3.4. Rheological Behaviors of Formulated Nectar-Like Fluids

#### 3.4.1. Behaviors Affected by Thermal and Possible Mechanical Processes

_{initial}and G′

_{end}values, and the G″

_{initial}and G″

_{end}values of the thickened fluid matrices are indicated by the colored triangles in Figure 8. Figure 8-a indicates the changes in fluid properties of TS-thickened continuous bases during thermal processing. When DW was used as the fluid base, the G′

_{end}and G″

_{end}values of the TS-thickened liquid were lower than the G′

_{initial}and G″

_{initial}values, which indicates that the thermal processing decreased the elastic and viscous characteristics of the thickened liquid. The G′

_{end}values of both the 3 min and 6 min processing groups were significantly lower than the corresponding G′

_{initial}values (p < 0.05), but there were no significant differences in G″

_{end}and G″

_{initial}. In addition, G″ was always higher than G′ during thermal processing, which indicates viscous characteristics during processing. When SD was used as the fluid base, the G′

_{end}and G″

_{end}values of the TS-thickened liquid were significantly lower than the G′

_{initial}and G″

_{initial}values. The G′ values of both the 3 min and 6 min processing groups were higher than the corresponding G″ values at the initial stage, indicating elastic characteristics. During the late stage of processing, the G″ values were higher than the G′ values, which indicates viscous characteristics. Therefore, it can be deduced that phase transition occurred during thermal processing, as shown in Figure 8. When OJ was used as the fluid base, the G′

_{end}and G″

_{end}values of the TS-thickened liquid were significantly lower than the G′

_{initial}and G″

_{initial}values (p < 0.05). The fluid properties of the thickened OJ showed a tendency similar to that of thickened SD, with the G′ values of both the 3 min and 6 min processing groups higher than the corresponding G″ values at the initial stage and the G″ values higher than the G′ values after the phase transition from elastic to viscous characteristics.

_{end}values of both the 3 min processing and 6 min processing groups were significantly lower than the corresponding G′

_{initial}values (p < 0.05), whereas G″

_{end}and G″

_{initial}did not differ significantly. Two phase transitions occurred in both the 3 min and 6 min processing groups during thermal processing. In the 3 min processing group, the first phase transition occurred when the temperature was increased to approximately 60 °C. Thereafter, G′ gradually decreased and became lower than G″, and the fluid exhibited a transition from elastic to viscous characteristics. The second phase transition occurred when the temperature was decreased to approximately 50 °C. G′ showed a gradual increase and became higher than G″, and the fluid exhibited a transition from viscous to elastic characteristics. Similar tendencies were observed in the 6 min processing group, with the first and second phase transitions occurring when the temperature was increased to 60 °C and decreased to approximately 47 °C, respectively. When SD was used as the fluid base, the G′

_{end}and G″

_{end}values of the 3 min processing group were significantly lower than the G′

_{initial}and G″

_{initial}values (p < 0.05), respectively, whereas the differences in values of the 6 min processing group were not significant. The fluids of both thermal processing groups did not undergo phase transition and had higher G′ values than G″ values, indicating elastic characteristics during thermal processing. When OJ was used as the fluid base, the G′

_{end}and G″

_{end}values of both the 3 min and 6 min processing groups were lower than the corresponding G′

_{initial}and G″

_{initial}values, but the differences were not statistically significant. The fluids of both thermal processing groups did not undergo phase transition and had higher G′ values than G″ values, indicating elastic characteristics during thermal processing.

_{initial}) and end points (G*

_{end}). When TS was used as the thickener, G*

_{end}was significantly lower than G*

_{initial}in almost all of the 3 min and 6 min processing groups (p < 0.05), with highly significant differences in the sugar-containing acidic beverages (SD and OJ) (p < 0.01). When HDP was used as the thickener, there were no significant differences between G*

_{initial}and G*

_{end}in all groups; when XG was used as the thickener, the G*

_{end}values of the 3 min and 6 min processing groups were significantly lower than the corresponding G*

_{initial}values (p < 0.05) for thickened DW, but did not differ significantly for the thickened SD and OJ samples. Therefore, when HDP was used as the thickener, product quality could be maintained after thermal processing as the fluid properties of the thickened liquid were not altered by heat. With TS used as the thickener, the fluid properties of the thickened liquid were altered by thermal processing. In addition, it was also found that the effects of thermal processing on product quality were more pronounced.

#### 3.4.2. Viscoelastic Characteristics

^{n}. As the 3 min and 6 min processing groups for TS- and XG-thickened DW and the 6 min processing group of TS-thickened SD exhibited unstable G′ values when sweeping was performed at frequencies >1 Hz, results within the frequency range of 0.1–1 Hz were displayed for these groups. The R

^{2}of G′ and G″ ranged from 0.9009 to 0.9984 and 0.9417 to 0.9995, respectively, indicating that the viscoelasticity of the thickened continuous bases obtained by the frequency sweep could be adequately described by G′ = kw

^{n}.

#### 3.5. Variations of Flow and Textural Parameters with Respect to Maintenance of Quality

## 4. Conclusions

## Author Contributions

## Funding

## Institutional Review Board Statement

## Informed Consent Statement

## Data Availability Statement

## Acknowledgments

## Conflicts of Interest

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**Figure 1.**Schematic structures of (

**a**) TS, (

**b**) HDP/E-1442, and chemical structure of (

**c**) XG. TS: tapioca starch; HDP: hydroxypropyl distarch phosphate; XG: xanthan gum.

**Figure 2.**The solubility index (

**a**) and swelling power (

**b**) of formula thickeners at different temperatures. Tapioca starch (●); hydroxypropyl distarch phosphate (○); xanthan gum (▼). Error bars represent standard deviations. The uppercase letters are significantly different (p < 0.05) at the same temperature. The lowercase letters are significantly different as a function of temperature for the same thickener (p < 0.05).

**Figure 3.**The water holding capacity (

**a**) and oil binding capacity (

**b**) at 4 and 25 °C for the thickeners. TS: tapioca starch; HDP: hydroxypropyl distarch phosphate; XG: xanthan gum. Error bars represent standard deviations. The uppercase letters are significantly different (p < 0.05) at 4 °C. The lowercase letters are significantly different (p < 0.05) at 25 °C. * is significant difference (p < 0.05) between 4 and 25 °C.

**Figure 4.**The weight-dependent (w) apparent viscosity with respect to thickeners incorporated into aquatic bases (w/v%). Water (●); sport drink (●); orange juice (▼). Error bars represent standard deviations. Thickeners: (

**a**) tapioca starch; (

**b**) hydroxypropyl distarch phosphate; (

**c**) xanthan gum.

**Figure 5.**Photos of nectar-like fluids formulated by commercial thickeners associated with different aquatic bases as continuous phases.

**Figure 6.**Shear rate-shear stress profile of different thickened beverages. Water (●); sport drink (●); orange juice (▼). Error bars represent standard deviations. Thickeners: (

**a**) tapioca starch with a partial magnification (

**a’**); (

**b**) hydroxypropyl distarch phosphate; (

**c**) xanthan gum.

**Figure 7.**Storage modulus % strain profile of thickened SD by incorporating different commercial thickeners. Tapioca starch (●); hydroxypropyl distarch phosphate (○); xanthan gum (▼).

**Figure 8.**Storage modulus (G′) and loss modulus (G″) of tapioca starch (

**a**), hydroxypropyl distarch phosphate (

**b**), and xanthan gum (

**c**) with different aquatic contiouous bases and holding times. DW: distilled water; SD: sport drink; OJ: orange juice; 3m: 3 minutes; 6m: 6 minutes. (●): G′; (o): G″; (—): temperature. (▼), and (▼) are signifcantly different at 5% and 1% levels, respectively, between G

_{initial}and G

_{end}using t-test. For tapioca starch, G′ with▼: DW-3m; G″ with ▼: SD-6m, and OJ-6m; G′ with ▼: SD-3m, SD-6m, and OJ-6m; G″ with▼: DW-6m, SD-3m, and OJ-3m. For, Hydroxypropyl distarch phosphate. G′ with▼: SD-6m. For xanthan gum. G″ with ▼: SD-6m; G′ with ▼: DW-3m, and DW-6m.

**Figure 9.**Complex moduli (G*) of different combinations of holding times, commercial thickeners, and aquatic continuous phases. DW: distilled water; SD: sport drink; OJ: orange juice; TS: tapioca starch; HDP: hydroxypropyl distarch phosphate; XG: xanthan gum. (▼) and (▼) are signifcantly different at 5% and 1% levels, respectively, between G

_{initial}and G

_{end}using t-test.

_{.}(●) = TS; (●) = HDP; (●) = XG.

**Figure 10.**Frequency sweep of different thickened fluid matrices. TS: tapioca starch; HDP: hydroxypropyl distarch phosphate; XG: xanthan gum; 3m: 3 min; 6m: 6 min. (●) = TS-3m; (●) = HDP-3m; (▼) = XG-3m; (▲) = TS-6m; (■) = HDP-6m; (■) = XG-6m.

**Table 1.**Correlations between apparent viscosity (y with unit of mPa.s) and combinations of thickeners and aquatic bases.

Thickener | Base | Equation Type | Regression Equation | R^{2} |
---|---|---|---|---|

TS | DW | Power law | y = 2.924·x^{3.0551} | 0.9988 |

SD | Power law | y = 3.2471·x^{3.2267} | 0.9986 | |

OJ | Power law | y = 25.477·x^{1.959} | 0.9846 | |

HDP | DW | Power law | y = 1.1044·x^{3.8583} | 0.9996 |

SD | Power law | y = 2.8921·x^{3.5511} | 0.9989 | |

OJ | Power law | y = 10.456·x^{2.9814} | 0.9929 | |

XG | DW | Linear | y = 573.38·x − 97.869 | 0.9983 |

SD | Linear | y = 848.42·x − 193.29 | 0.9987 | |

OJ | Linear | y = 800.29·x − 73.941 | 0.9922 |

Food Thickener (g) | Base | Viscosity | ||
---|---|---|---|---|

Distilled Water | Sport Drink | Orange Juice | ||

Tapioca starch | 4.505 | 4.061 | 3.374 | 300 ± 20 mPa.s |

Hydroxypropyl distarch phosphate | 4.167 | 3.752 | 3.032 | |

Xanthan gum | 0.694 | 0.581 | 0.467 |

**Table 3.**Summary of the flow properties parameter of regression output of Herschel–Bulkley model for thickened beverages made from different commercial thickeners and fluid bases *.

Base | Thickener | σ_{0} (Pa) | K (Pa·s^{n}) | n | R^{2} |
---|---|---|---|---|---|

Distilled water | TS | 0.2328 ± 0.0017 | 0.7576 ± 0.0100 | 0.6356 ± 0.0005 | 0.9992 |

HDP | 0.5835 ± 0.0025 | 1.9413 ± 0.0086 | 0.5321 ± 0.0031 | 0.9999 | |

XG | −6.1593 ± 0.0703 | 13.5273 ± 0.0445 | 0.0883 ± 0.0012 | 0.9989 | |

Sport drink | TS | 0.0951 ± 0.0046 | 0.7862 ± 0.0052 | 0.6999 ± 0.0017 | 0.9998 |

HDP | 1.0089 ± 0.0875 | 2.0507 ± 0.0610 | 0.5373 ± 0.0038 | 0.9999 | |

XG | −7.4699 ± 0.0209 | 14.2086 ± 0.0143 | 0.0952 ± 0.0006 | 0.9999 | |

Orange juice | TS | 0.1623 ± 0.0016 | 0.7513 ± 0.0122 | 0.7370 ± 0.0035 | 0.9996 |

HDP | 0.8044 ± 0.0018 | 3.0854 ± 0.0049 | 0.4425 ± 0.0159 | 0.9999 | |

XG | −7.7606 ± 0.0128 | 15.3304 ± 0.0479 | 0.0778 ± 0.0008 | 0.9987 |

**Table 4.**Regression models of power law and Casson models for thickened fluid matrices formulated with different thickeners and aquatic continuous phases (bases) *.

Base | Thickener | Power Law Model | Casson Model | |||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

K (Pa·s^{n}) | n | R^{2} | σ_{0} (Pa) * | R^{2} | ||

DW | TS | 0.9334 ± 0.0190 ^{A,a} | 0.5835 ± 0.0094 ^{A,a} | 0.9986 | 0.4047 ± 0.0007 ^{A,a} | 0.9903 |

HDP | 2.4421 ± 0.0052 ^{A,b} | 0.4773 ± 0.0086 ^{A,b} | 0.9989 | 1.3528 ± 0.0072 ^{A,b} | 0.9865 | |

XG | 7.3549 ± 0.0959 ^{A,c} | 0.1483 ± 0.0048 ^{A,c} | 0.9974 | 6.3973 ± 0.2226 ^{A,c} | 0.9139 | |

SP | TS | 0.8482 ± 0.0020 ^{B,a} | 0.6806 ± 0.0059 ^{B,a} | 0.9997 | 0.2538 ± 0.0008 ^{B,a} | 0.9948 |

HDP | 2.9300 ± 0.0193 ^{B,b} | 0.4524 ± 0.0210 ^{A,b} | 0.9974 | 1.7450 ± 0.0159^{B,b} | 0.9894 | |

XG | 6.7255 ± 0.0493 ^{B,c} | 0.1772 ± 0.0082 ^{B,c} | 0.9972 | 5.6551 ± 0.3009 ^{B,c} | 0.9121 | |

OJ | TS | 0.8522 ± 0.0059 ^{B,a} | 0.7048 ± 0.0042 ^{C,a} | 0.9993 | 0.2438 ± 0.0041 ^{C,a} | 0.9958 |

HDP | 3.8295 ± 0.3158 ^{C,b} | 0.3940 ± 0.0101 ^{B,b} | 0.9990 | 2.4338 ± 0.0262 ^{C,b} | 0.9788 | |

XG | 7.5538 ± 0.0760 ^{C,c} | 0.1432 ± 0.0074 ^{A,c} | 0.9970 | 6.6054 ± 0.0289 ^{A,c} | 0.9120 |

**Table 5.**Linear regression outputs of equation G′ = kw

^{n}in log scale for thickened fluid with different combinations of continuous bases, thickeners (TCN), and processes with the frequency range between 0.1 and 10 Hz.

Base | TCN | Holding Time | G′ | G″ | ||||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

k | n | R^{2} | k | n | R^{2} | |||

DW | TS | 3 min | 0.2245 ± 0.0342 * | 0.5345 ± 0.0333 * | 0.9930 * | 0.4410 ± 0.0515 | 0.6157 ± 0.0120 | 0.9939 |

6 min | 0.0965 ± 0.1101 * | 0.8726 ± 0.3447 * | 0.9984 * | 0.3605 ± 0.0903 | 0.5668 ± 0.0108 | 0.9974 | ||

HDP | 3 min | 1.5238 ± 0.0875 | 0.1980 ± 0.0291 | 0.9432 | 1.0140 ± 0.0806 | 0.3594 ± 0.0071 | 0.9905 | |

6 min | 1.6478 ± 0.1059 | 0.1622 ± 0.0291 | 0.9022 | 1.0444 ± 0.1102 | 0.3410 ± 0.0046 | 0.9912 | ||

XG | 3 min | 0.9825 ± 0.0669 * | 0.3911 ± 0.0077 * | 0.9913 * | 0.6806 ± 0.0816 | 0.2203 ± 0.0083 | 0.9836 | |

6 min | 0.9098 ± 0.1449 * | 0.3909 ± 0.0116 * | 0.9933 * | 0.6883 ± 0.0556 | 0.2231 ± 0.0037 | 0.9795 | ||

SD | TS | 3 min | −0.3227 ± 0.0527 | 1.6479 ± 0.1133 | 0.9962 | 0.0365 ± 0.0030 | 0.7167 ± 0.0468 | 0.9858 |

6 min | −0.0539 ± 0.0250 * | 0.5138 ± 0.0449 * | 0.9861 * | 0.2947 ± 0.0380 | 0.6175 ± 0.0108 | 0.9810 | ||

HDP | 3 min | 1.3947 ± 0.0857 | 0.2644 ± 0.0749 | 0.9694 | 0.8313 ± 0.0864 | 0.3788 ± 0.0107 | 0.9916 | |

6 min | 1.4134 ± 0.1548 | 0.2398 ± 0.0362 | 0.9421 | 0.8618 ± 0.0973 | 0.3778 ± 0.0361 | 0.9931 | ||

XG | 3 min | 1.1480 ± 0.0559 | 0.2777 ± 0.0682 | 0.9482 | 1.1741 ± 0.0430 | 0.2539 ± 0.0839 | 0.9670 | |

6 min | 0.5922 ± 0.0431 | 0.1294 ± 0.0169 | 0.9832 | 0.6130 ± 0.0440 | 0.1338 ± 0.0227 | 0.9417 | ||

OJ | TS | 3 min | −0.3256 ± 0.0174 | 1.7310 ± 0.0392 | 0.9986 | 0.0066 ± 0.0287 | 0.6608 ± 0.0145 | 0.9995 |

6 min | −0.3566 ± 0.0374 | 1.7084 ± 0.0623 | 0.9982 | −0.0056 ± 0.0049 | 0.6852 ± 0.0296 | 0.9969 | ||

HDP | 3 min | 0.8121 ± 0.0153 | 0.7539 ± 0.0000 | 0.9105 | 0.5112 ± 0.0153 | 0.4943 ± 0.0000 | 0.9959 | |

6 min | 0.8966 ± 0.1121 | 0.5778 ± 0.1761 | 0.9077 | 0.5394 ± 0.0775 | 0.3310 ± 0.1414 | 0.9960 | ||

XG | 3 min | 1.0803 ± 0.0554 | 0.3471 ± 0.0696 | 0.9928 | 0.5680 ± 0.0671 | 0.1541 ± 0.0084 | 0.9822 | |

6 min | 0.8686 ± 0.0400 | 0.5744 ± 0.0899 | 0.9009 | 0.4370 ± 0.0093 | 0.2724 ± 0.1110 | 0.9793 |

**Table 6.**Storage modulus (G′), loss modulus (G″), and loss tangent (tanδ) affected by different combinations of holding times (T in minutes), commercial thickeners, and aquatic continuous phases at 1 Hz.

Base | T | TS | HDP | XG | ||||||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

G′ (Pa) | G″ (Pa) | tanδ | G′ (Pa) | G″ (Pa) | tanδ | G′ (Pa) | G″ (Pa) | tanδ | ||

DW | 3 | 1.62 ± 0.116 ^{A,a} | 2.87 ± 0.342 ^{A,a} | 1.75 ± 0.105 ^{A,a} | 34.07 ± 6.890 ^{B,a} | 10.24 ± 1.820 ^{B,a} | 0.31 ± 0.105 ^{B,a} | 9.60 ± 1.328 ^{A,bc} | 5.02 ± 0.859 ^{A,a} | 0.52 ± 0.022 ^{B,a} |

6 | 1.50 ± 0.058 ^{A,a} | 2.36 ± 0.418 ^{A,ab} | 1.56 ± 0.230 ^{A,b} | 46.36 ± 8.144 ^{B,a} | 11.37 ± 2.89 ^{B,a} | 0.25 ± 0.003 ^{B,a} | 9.52 ± 1.143 ^{A,bc} | 5.00 ± 0.629 ^{A,a} | 0.52 ± 0.005 ^{B,a} | |

SD | 3 | 0.86 ± 0.056 ^{A,b} | 1.18 ± 0.044 ^{A,c} | 1.39 ± 0.140 ^{A,a} | 24.98 ± 6.010 ^{B,ab} | 6.98 ± 1.54 ^{B,ab} | 0.28 ± 0.005 ^{C,a} | 14.10 ± 1.826 ^{AB,ab} | 3.85 ± 0.393 ^{A,ab} | 0.28 ± 0.011 ^{C,b} |

6 | 0.84 ± 0.071 ^{A,b} | 1.97 ± 0.183 ^{A,b} | 2.40 ± 0.386 ^{B,a} | 27.59 ± 8.528 ^{B,ab} | 7.38 ± 1.59 ^{B,ab} | 0.29 ± 0.044 ^{C,a} | 13.91 ± 2.940 ^{AB,a} | 4.02 ± 0.425 ^{A,ab} | 0.27 ± 0.002 ^{C,b} | |

OJ | 3 | 0.8 2± 0.058 ^{A,b} | 1.03 ± 0.069 ^{A,c} | 1.26 ± 0.038 ^{A,a} | 7.51 ± 0.263 ^{B,b} | 3.16 ± 0.111 ^{B,b} | 0.42 ± 0.000 ^{B,b} | 12.13 ± 1.807 ^{B,abc} | 3.68 ± 0.575 ^{B,ab} | 0.30 ± 0.003 ^{B,b} |

6 | 0.80 ± 0.056 ^{A,b} | 1.03 ± 0.005 ^{A,c} | 1.30 ± 0.103 ^{A,a} | 8.96 ± 1.922 ^{B,b} | 3.50 ± 0.677 ^{B,b} | 0.39 ± 0.014 ^{B,b} | 7.75 ± 0.376 ^{B,c} | 2.66 ± 0.058 ^{B,b} | 0.35 ± 0.019 ^{B,c} |

**Table 7.**Textural parameter variations due to thermal processing, aquatic continuous phases, and commercial thickeners after 28 days of storage at 4 °C facilitated by a 121 °C-15 min thermal process.

Parameter | Apparent Viscosity | Viscosity Index | Consistency Index | ||
---|---|---|---|---|---|

Process | Formula | (mPa.s) | (g.s) | (g.s) | |

Base | Thickener | ||||

Control | DW | TS | 315.5 ± 5.70 ^{A,a} | 177.5 ± 3.52 ^{A,a} | 266.1 ± 10.62 ^{A,a} |

HDP | 316.9 ± 9.33 ^{AB,a} | 279.4 ± 1.00 ^{A,b} | 427.5 ± 8.21 ^{A,b} | ||

XG | 307.1 ± 9.36 ^{A,a} | 168.8 ± 16.76 ^{A,c} | 386.3 ± 9.32 ^{A,c} | ||

SD | TS | 303.7 ± 3.12 ^{B,a} | 167.7 ± 2.48 ^{B,a} | 274.8 ± 9.87 ^{AB,a} | |

HDP | 325.9 ± 4.65^{A,b} | 287.4 ± 10.09 ^{B,b} | 319.1 ± 16.88 ^{B,b} | ||

XG | 308.8 ± 6.87 ^{A,a} | 286.2 ± 6.19 ^{B,b} | 562.3 ± 9.59 ^{B,c} | ||

OJ | TS | 305.0 ± 5.36 ^{B,a} | 109.1 ± 9.84 ^{A,a} | 292.4 ± 13.05 ^{B,a} | |

HDP | 309.8 ± 5.55 ^{B,a} | 182.5 ± 5.01 ^{C,b} | 364.8 ± 5.34 ^{C,b} | ||

XG | 306.1 ± 6.11 ^{A,c} | 290.9 ± 7.44 ^{C,c} | 497.7 ± 12.98 ^{C,c} | ||

121 °C | DW | TS | 44.2 ± 4.50 ^{A,a,}** | 43.4 ± 1.76 ^{A,a,}** | 266.5 ± 3.53 ^{A,a} |

15 min | HDP | 227.8 ± 4.61 ^{A,b,}** | 65.5 ± 17.00 ^{A,b,}** | 266.1 ± 1.00 ^{A,c,}** | |

XG | 107.1 ± 1.70 ^{A,c,}** | 86.2 ± 2.09 ^{A,c,}** | 252.7 ± 16.76 ^{A,b,}** | ||

SD | TS | 4.53 ± 0.98 ^{B,a,}** | 30.33 ± 2.64 ^{B,a,}** | 232.0 ± 3.53 ^{B,a,}** | |

HDP | 9.1 ± 1.93 ^{B,b,}** | 23.7 ± 2.26 ^{B,a,}** | 241.6 ± 2.59 ^{B,a,}* | ||

XG | 36.8 ± 2.60 ^{B,c,}** | 68.9 ± 5.60 ^{B,b,}** | 260 ± 10.31 ^{A,b,}** | ||

OJ | TS | 5.7 ± 1.61 ^{B,a,}** | 53.9 ± 2.26 ^{C,a,}** | 350.8 ± 9.19 ^{C,a,}** | |

HDP | 6.3 ± 0.98 ^{B,a,}** | 50.64 ± 3.68 ^{A,a,}** | 345.7 ± 4.83 ^{C,a,}** | ||

XG | 27.8 ± 2.60 ^{C,b,}** | 63.4 ± 5.24 ^{B,b,}** | 266.2 ± 12.85 ^{A,b,}** |

**Table 8.**Textural parameter variations due to thermal processing, aquatic continuous phases, and commercial thickeners prior to and after a 28 day storage at 4 °C facilitated by thermal processes of 80 °C-3/6 min.

Parameter | Apparent Viscosity | Viscosity Index | Consistency Index | |||||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

Process | Formula | (mPa.s) | (g.s) | (g.s) | ||||

Base | Thickener | Day 0 | Day 28 | Day 0 | Day 28 | Day 0 | Day 28 | |

80 °C | DW | TS | 239.3 ± 5.20 ^{A,a,}** | 226.9 ± 11.49 | 116.6 ± 2.26 ^{A,a} | 80.2 ± 3.04 ^{¶} | 255.3 ± 10.15 ^{A,a} | 280.4 ± 0.17 ^{¶} |

3 min | HDP | 285.6 ± 9.17 ^{BA,b,}* | 339.6 ± 10.42 ^{¶} | 275.3 ± 11.06 ^{A,b} | 281.1 ± 3.20 | 422.5 ± 2.93 ^{A,b} | 446.3 ± 20.68 | |

XG | 181.3 ± 3.93 ^{A,c,}** | 189.4 ± 6.05 | 178.23 ± 16.59 ^{A,c} | 194.4 ± 4.64 | 391.5 ± 3.43 ^{A,c} | 451.51 ± 5.99 ^{¶} | ||

SD | TS | 162.6 ± 5.97 ^{B,a,}** | 121.5 ± 4.15 ^{¶} | 95.7 ± 0.84 ^{B,a,}** | 92.0 ± 1.89 | 287.8 ± 11.97 ^{B,a} | 292.5 ± 14.13 | |

HDP | 378.5 ± 0.98 ^{B,b,}** | 331.0 ± 15.29 ^{¶} | 171.1 ± 6.17 ^{B,b,}** | 199.1 ± 5.64 ^{¶} | 326.3 ± 5.28 ^{B,b} | 380.9 ± 5.99 ^{¶} | ||

XG | 300.3 ± 2.60 ^{B,c} | 250.3 ± 11.91 ^{¶} | 284.4 ± 4.47 ^{B,c} | 291.3 ± 9.17 | 572.1 ± 12.31 ^{B,c} | 574.5 ± 12.31 | ||

OJ | TS | 174.8 ± 5.31 ^{C,a,}** | 185.3 ± 13.60 ^{¶} | 103.1 ± 1.10 ^{C,a} | 86.6 ± 1.34 ^{¶} | 295.5 ± 5.38 ^{B,a} | 290.6 ± 12.36 | |

HDP | 330.7 ± 4.25 ^{C,b,}** | 416.1 ± 15.28 ^{¶} | 129.8 ± 1.33 ^{C,b} | 122.0 ± 6.77 | 370.6 ± 8.40 ^{C,b} | 330.1 ± 23.58 ^{¶} | ||

XG | 261.8 ± 5.10 ^{C,c,}** | 273.7 ± 2.49 | 283.6 ± 5.38 ^{B,c} | 320.1 ± 7.81 ^{¶} | 484.6 ± 9.91 ^{C,c} | 540.0 ± 7.65 ^{¶} | ||

80 °C | DW | TS | 270.1 ± 21.79 ^{A,a,}* | 211.8 ± 7.20 ^{¶} | 114.3 ± 2.35 ^{A,a} | 91.2 ± 1.60 ^{¶} | 260.0 ± 2.79 ^{A,a} | 283.5 ± 4.05 ^{¶} |

6 min | HDP | 340.1 ± 16.81 ^{A,b} | 406.8 ± 11.68 ^{¶} | 280.0 ± 4.26 ^{A,b} | 337.3 ± 3.02 ^{¶} | 428.04 ± 9.20 ^{A,b} | 475.8 ± 7.42 ^{¶} | |

XG | 174.7 ± 2.67 ^{A,c,}** | 181.5 ± 2.61 ^{¶} | 179.8 ± 0.76 ^{A,c} | 167.9 ± 9.32 | 389.4 ± 5.02 ^{A,c} | 388.8 ± 34.97 | ||

SD | TS | 118.4 ± 1.96 ^{B,a,}** | 81.7 ± 3.76 ^{¶} | 96.6 ± 0.99 ^{B,a,}** | 85.3 ± 3.00 ^{¶} | 278.9 ± 16.35 ^{AB,a} | 283.6 ± 0.55 | |

HDP | 366.8 ± 19.79 ^{A,b} | 374.8 ± 7.20 | 169.4 ± 4.17 ^{B,b,}** | 192.0 ± 2.95 ^{¶} | 340.8 ± 6.11 ^{B,b} | 400.9 ± 13.99 ^{¶} | ||

XG | 292.4 ± 1.70 ^{B,c,}* | 249.3 ± 12.44 ^{¶} | 261.3 ± 2.54 ^{B,c,}* | 286.5 ± 6.52 ^{¶} | 566.2 ± 9.79 ^{B,c} | 596.6 ± 12.91 | ||

OJ | TS | 148.5 ± 7.67 ^{C,a,}** | 117.5 ± 1.33 ^{¶} | 100.4 ± 2.51 ^{AB,a} | 101.9 ± 2.93 | 286.8 ± 3.28 ^{B,b} | 292.6 ± 2.72 | |

HDP | 288.4 ± 5.46 ^{B,b,}** | 284.6 ± 4.77 | 187.1 ± 7.50 ^{C,b} | 199.9 ± 3.61 ^{¶} | 352.9 ± 8.89 ^{B,c} | 412.7 ± 3.46 ^{¶} | ||

XG | 286.2 ± 9.36 ^{B,b,}* | 277.1 ± 5.57 ^{¶} | 305.5 ± 1.38 ^{C,c} | 333.8 ± 9.20 ^{¶} | 525.1 ± 9.35 ^{B,c} | 532.2 ± 6.06 |

^{¶}indicates significant difference at the end of a 28 day storage comparing to day 0.

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## Share and Cite

**MDPI and ACS Style**

Yang, H.; Lin, Y. Effect of Thermal Processing on Flow Properties and Stability of Thickened Fluid Matrices Formulated by Tapioca Starch, Hydroxyl Distarch Phosphate (E-1442), and Xanthan Gum Associating Dysphagia-Friendly Potential. *Polymers* **2021**, *13*, 162.
https://doi.org/10.3390/polym13010162

**AMA Style**

Yang H, Lin Y. Effect of Thermal Processing on Flow Properties and Stability of Thickened Fluid Matrices Formulated by Tapioca Starch, Hydroxyl Distarch Phosphate (E-1442), and Xanthan Gum Associating Dysphagia-Friendly Potential. *Polymers*. 2021; 13(1):162.
https://doi.org/10.3390/polym13010162

**Chicago/Turabian Style**

Yang, Huaiwen, and Yuhsien Lin. 2021. "Effect of Thermal Processing on Flow Properties and Stability of Thickened Fluid Matrices Formulated by Tapioca Starch, Hydroxyl Distarch Phosphate (E-1442), and Xanthan Gum Associating Dysphagia-Friendly Potential" *Polymers* 13, no. 1: 162.
https://doi.org/10.3390/polym13010162