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Open AccessArticle

Application of PEG-Covered Non-Biodegradable Polyelectrolyte Microcapsules in the Crustacean Circulatory System on the Example of the Amphipod Eulimnogammarus verrucosus

1
Institute of Biology, Irkutsk State University, 664025 Irkutsk, Russia
2
Baikal Research Centre, 664003 Irkutsk, Russia
3
Institute of Biology, Karelian Research Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 185910 Petrozavodsk, Russia
4
Optoelectronics and Measurement Techniques Laboratory, University of Oulu, 90570 Oulu, Finland
5
Aston Institute of Materials Research, School of Engineering & Applied Science, Aston University, Birmingham B4 7ET, UK
6
School of Life & Health Sciences, Aston University, Birmingham B4 7ET, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Polymers 2019, 11(8), 1246; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym11081246
Received: 15 May 2019 / Revised: 22 July 2019 / Accepted: 24 July 2019 / Published: 27 July 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fluorescent polymers for sensing and imaging)
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Abstract

Layer-by-layer assembled microcapsules are promising carriers for the delivery of various pharmaceutical and sensing substances into specific organs of different animals, but their utility in vivo inside such an important group as crustaceans remains poorly explored. In the current study, we analyzed several significant aspects of the application of fluorescent microcapsules covered by polyethylene glycol (PEG) inside the crustacean circulatory system, using the example of the amphipod Eulimnogammarus verrucosus. In particular, we explored the distribution dynamics of visible microcapsules after injection into the main hemolymph vessel; analyzed the most significant features of E. verrucosus autofluorescence; monitored amphipod mortality and biochemical markers of stress response after microcapsule injection, as well as the healing of the injection wound; and finally, we studied the immune response to the microcapsules. The visibility of microcapsules decreased with time, however, the central hemolymph vessel was confirmed to be the most promising organ for detecting the spectral signal of implanted microencapsulated fluorescent probes. One million injected microcapsules (sufficient for detecting stable fluorescence during the first hours after injection) showed no toxicity for six weeks, but in vitro amphipod immune cells recognize the PEG-coated microcapsules as foreign bodies and try to isolate them by 12 h after contact. View Full-Text
Keywords: biocompatibility; immunity; implantable sensors; invertebrate; layer-by-layer; primary cell cultures biocompatibility; immunity; implantable sensors; invertebrate; layer-by-layer; primary cell cultures
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Shchapova, E.; Nazarova, A.; Gurkov, A.; Borvinskaya, E.; Rzhechitskiy, Y.; Dmitriev, I.; Meglinski, I.; Timofeyev, M. Application of PEG-Covered Non-Biodegradable Polyelectrolyte Microcapsules in the Crustacean Circulatory System on the Example of the Amphipod Eulimnogammarus verrucosus. Polymers 2019, 11, 1246.

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