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Marine Bacterial Exopolymers-Mediated Green Synthesis of Noble Metal Nanoparticles with Antimicrobial Properties

1
Dipartimento di Scienze Chimiche, Biologiche, Farmaceutiche ed Ambientali, Università di Messina, Viale F. Stagno d’Alcontres 31, 98166 Messina, Italy
2
Nanobiophotonics Center, Interdisciplinary Research Institute in Bio-Nano-Sciences and Faculty of Physics, Babes-Bolyai University, T Laurian 42, 400271 Cluj-Napoca, Romania
3
Nanostructured Materials and Bio-Nano-Interfaces Center, Interdisciplinary Research Institute in BioNano-Sciences, Babes-Bolyai University, T. Laurian 42, 400271 Cluj-Napoca, Romania
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Polymers 2019, 11(7), 1157; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym11071157
Received: 11 June 2019 / Revised: 3 July 2019 / Accepted: 4 July 2019 / Published: 7 July 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polymeric Nanoparticles for Drug Delivery and Diagnostics)
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Abstract

A straightforward and green method for the synthesis of gold, silver, and silver chloride nanoparticles (Au NPs and Ag/AgCl NPs) was developed using three different microbial exopolymers (EP) as reducing and stabilizing agents. The exopolysaccharides EPS B3-15 and EPS T14 and the poly-γ-glutamic acid γ-PGA-APA were produced by thermophilic bacteria isolated from shallow hydrothermal vents off the Eolian Islands (Italy) in the Mediterranean Sea. The production of metal NPs was monitored by UV−Vis measurements by the typical plasmon resonance absorption peak and their antimicrobial activity towards Gram-positive and Gram- negative bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa), as well as fungi (Candida albicans) was investigated. The biological evaluation showed no activity for EP-Au NPs, except against E. coli, whereas EP-Ag NPs exhibited a broad-spectrum of activity. The chemical composition, morphology, and size of EP-Ag NPs were investigated by UV–Vis, zeta potential (ζ), dynamic light scattering (DLS) measurements and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The best antimicrobial results were obtained for EPS B3-15-Ag NPs and EPS T14-Ag NPs (Minimum Inhibitory Concentration, MIC: 9.37–45 µg/mL; Minimum Bactericidal Concentration/Minimum Fungicidal Concentration, MBC/MFC: 11.25–75 µg/mL). View Full-Text
Keywords: EPS; Au nanoparticles; Ag nanoparticles; AgCl nanoparticles; S. aureus; E. coli; P. aeruginosa; C. albicans EPS; Au nanoparticles; Ag nanoparticles; AgCl nanoparticles; S. aureus; E. coli; P. aeruginosa; C. albicans
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Scala, A.; Piperno, A.; Hada, A.; Astilean, S.; Vulpoi, A.; Ginestra, G.; Marino, A.; Nostro, A.; Zammuto, V.; Gugliandolo, C. Marine Bacterial Exopolymers-Mediated Green Synthesis of Noble Metal Nanoparticles with Antimicrobial Properties. Polymers 2019, 11, 1157.

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