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Open AccessArticle

Development of Bio-Based Films and 3D Objects from Apple Pomace

Swedish Centre for Resource Recovery, University of Borås, 50190 Borås, Sweden
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Polymers 2019, 11(2), 289; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym11020289
Received: 14 January 2019 / Revised: 29 January 2019 / Accepted: 6 February 2019 / Published: 8 February 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lignocellulosic Fibers and Films)
Extensive quantities of apple pomace are generated annually but its disposal is still challenging. This study addresses this issue by introducing a new, environmentally-friendly approach for the production of sustainable biomaterials from apple pomace, containing 55.47% free sugars and a water insoluble fraction, containing 29.42 ± 0.44% hemicelluloses, 38.99 ± 0.42% cellulose, and 22.94 ± 0.12% lignin. Solution casting and compression molding were applied to form bio-based films and 3D objects (i.e., fiberboards), respectively. Using glycerol as plasticizer resulted in highly compact films with high tensile strength and low elongation (16.49 ± 2.54 MPa and 10.78 ± 3.19%, respectively). In contrast, naturally occurring sugars in the apple pomace showed stronger plasticizing effect in the films and resulted in a fluffier and connected structure with significantly higher elongation (37.39 ± 10.38% and 55.41 ± 5.38%, respectively). Benefiting from the self-binding capacity of polysaccharides, fiberboards were prepared by compression molding at 100 °C using glycerol or naturally occurring sugars, such as plasticizer. The obtained fiberboards exhibited tensile strength of 3.02–5.79 MPa and elongation of 0.93%–1.56%. Possible applications for apple pomace biomaterials are edible/disposable tableware or food packaging. View Full-Text
Keywords: apple pomace; bio-based film; biomaterials; compression molding; fiberboard; solution casting apple pomace; bio-based film; biomaterials; compression molding; fiberboard; solution casting
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MDPI and ACS Style

Gustafsson, J.; Landberg, M.; Bátori, V.; Åkesson, D.; Taherzadeh, M.J.; Zamani, A. Development of Bio-Based Films and 3D Objects from Apple Pomace. Polymers 2019, 11, 289.

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