Next Article in Journal
A Patterned Butyl Methacrylate-co-2-Hydroxyethyl Acrylate Copolymer with Softening Surface and Swelling Capacity
Next Article in Special Issue
Optimization of Laccase/Mediator System (LMS) Stage Applied in Fractionation of Eucalyptus globulus
Previous Article in Journal
Co-Encapsulation and Co-Delivery of Peptide Drugs via Polymeric Nanoparticles
Article Menu
Issue 2 (February) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle

Development of Bio-Based Films and 3D Objects from Apple Pomace

Swedish Centre for Resource Recovery, University of Borås, 50190 Borås, Sweden
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Polymers 2019, 11(2), 289; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym11020289
Received: 14 January 2019 / Revised: 29 January 2019 / Accepted: 6 February 2019 / Published: 8 February 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lignocellulosic Fibers and Films)
  |  
PDF [2659 KB, uploaded 10 February 2019]
  |  

Abstract

Extensive quantities of apple pomace are generated annually but its disposal is still challenging. This study addresses this issue by introducing a new, environmentally-friendly approach for the production of sustainable biomaterials from apple pomace, containing 55.47% free sugars and a water insoluble fraction, containing 29.42 ± 0.44% hemicelluloses, 38.99 ± 0.42% cellulose, and 22.94 ± 0.12% lignin. Solution casting and compression molding were applied to form bio-based films and 3D objects (i.e., fiberboards), respectively. Using glycerol as plasticizer resulted in highly compact films with high tensile strength and low elongation (16.49 ± 2.54 MPa and 10.78 ± 3.19%, respectively). In contrast, naturally occurring sugars in the apple pomace showed stronger plasticizing effect in the films and resulted in a fluffier and connected structure with significantly higher elongation (37.39 ± 10.38% and 55.41 ± 5.38%, respectively). Benefiting from the self-binding capacity of polysaccharides, fiberboards were prepared by compression molding at 100 °C using glycerol or naturally occurring sugars, such as plasticizer. The obtained fiberboards exhibited tensile strength of 3.02–5.79 MPa and elongation of 0.93%–1.56%. Possible applications for apple pomace biomaterials are edible/disposable tableware or food packaging. View Full-Text
Keywords: apple pomace; bio-based film; biomaterials; compression molding; fiberboard; solution casting apple pomace; bio-based film; biomaterials; compression molding; fiberboard; solution casting
Figures

Graphical abstract

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Gustafsson, J.; Landberg, M.; Bátori, V.; Åkesson, D.; Taherzadeh, M.J.; Zamani, A. Development of Bio-Based Films and 3D Objects from Apple Pomace. Polymers 2019, 11, 289.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Polymers EISSN 2073-4360 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top