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Crystals 2019, 9(1), 6; https://doi.org/10.3390/cryst9010006

Interplay of Spin and Spatial Anisotropy in Low-Dimensional Quantum Magnets with Spin 1/2

Institute of Physics, Faculty of Science, P.J. Šafárik University, Park Angelinum 9, 041 54 Košice, Slovakia
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Received: 26 November 2018 / Revised: 18 December 2018 / Accepted: 19 December 2018 / Published: 21 December 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Magnets)
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Abstract

Quantum Heisenberg chain and square lattices are important paradigms of a low-dimensional magnetism. Their ground states are determined by the strength of quantum fluctuations. Correspondingly, the ground state of a rectangular lattice interpolates between the spin liquid and the ordered collinear Néel state with the partially reduced order parameter. The diversity of additional exchange interactions offers variety of quantum models derived from the aforementioned paradigms. Besides the spatial anisotropy of the exchange coupling, controlling the lattice dimensionality and ground-state properties, the spin anisotropy (intrinsic or induced by the magnetic field) represents another important effect disturbing a rotational symmetry of the spin system. The S = 1/2 easy-axis and easy-plane XXZ models on the square lattice even for extremely weak spin anisotropies undergo Heisenberg-Ising and Heisenberg-XY crossovers, respectively, acting as precursors to the onset of the finite-temperature phase transitions within the two-dimensional Ising universality class (for the easy axis anisotropy) and a topological Berezinskii–Kosterlitz–Thouless phase transition (for the easy-plane anisotropy). Experimental realizations of the S = 1/2 two-dimensional XXZ models in bulk quantum magnets appeared only recently. Partial solutions of the problems associated with their experimental identifications are discussed and some possibilities of future investigations in quantum magnets on the square and rectangular lattice are outlined. View Full-Text
Keywords: Heisenberg; S = 1/2 XXZ model; spin anisotropy; square lattice; chain; rectangular lattice; Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless phase transition; phase diagram; quantum magnet Heisenberg; S = 1/2 XXZ model; spin anisotropy; square lattice; chain; rectangular lattice; Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless phase transition; phase diagram; quantum magnet
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Orendáčová, A.; Tarasenko, R.; Tkáč, V.; Čižmár, E.; Orendáč, M.; Feher, A. Interplay of Spin and Spatial Anisotropy in Low-Dimensional Quantum Magnets with Spin 1/2. Crystals 2019, 9, 6.

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