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Open AccessArticle

Performance Comparison of Eichhornia crassipes and Salvinia natans on Azo-Dye (Eriochrome Black T) Phytoremediation

1
Environmental Science Department, Sapientia Hungarian University of Transylvania, Calea Turzii. no. 4, 400193 Cluj-Napoca, Romania
2
Department of Genetics, Microbiology and Biotechnology, Szent István University, Páter Károly no. 1, H-2100 Gödöllő, Hungary
3
Faculty of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Babeș-Bolyai University of Cluj-Napoca, 11 Arany János no. 11, 400028 Cluj-Napoca, Romania
4
Faculty of Sciences, Institute of Chemistry, University of Pécs, Ifjúság no. 6, H-7624 Pécs, Hungary
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Department of Bioengineering, Faculty of Economics, Socio-Human Sciences and Engineering, Sapientia Hungarian University of Transylvania, Piaţa Libertăţii. no.1, 530104 Miercurea-Ciuc, Romania
6
Nanostructured Materials and Bio-Nano-Interfaces Centre, Interdisciplinary Research Institute on Bio-Nano-Sciences, Babeș-Bolyai University, Treboniu Laurian 42, 400271 Cluj-Napoca, Romania
7
Institute of Environmental Science and Technology, University of Szeged, Tisza Lajos no.103, 6720 Szeged, Hungary
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Crystals 2020, 10(7), 565; https://doi.org/10.3390/cryst10070565
Received: 29 May 2020 / Revised: 24 June 2020 / Accepted: 29 June 2020 / Published: 1 July 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Structure and Properties of Organic Dyes in Solid State)
Organic pollutants, such as dyes, have a negative effect on the aqueous environment, therefore, their elimination from water bodies is a high priority. In this work, Eichhornia crassipes and Salvinia natans, both model plants with high phytoremediation efficiency, were exposed to various concentrations (Ci = 50–500 mg/L) of Eriochrome Black T (EBT). Their capacity to assimilate EBT was studied for 16 days of exposure, similar to natural conditions and by spectrophotometric monitoring of the dye concentration (EE. crassipes; 150 mg/L = 33%; ES. natans; 150 mg/L = 71.5%). The changes of the experimental parameters (pH—equalised by day 5, temperature, humidity, light intensity) were followed, and plant growth and biochemical responses to toxic stress effects (photosynthetic pigments, Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX)—decreased effect of P, Mg, Ca, S and K, Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), defense enzyme) were examined. Furthermore, changes in oxidative- and photo-degradation of EBT in time and the solid-state properties (SEM, EDX, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy-FTIR) of the dye were investigated. Our results demonstrate that, despite the toxic stress, both species succeeded in reducing the dye-concentration of the water and S. natans proved to be more efficient in binding and removing organic dyes. With our findings, we proved that both plants alleviated the abiotic stress of dye contamination. View Full-Text
Keywords: Salvinia natans; Eichhornia crassipes; Eriochrome Black T dye; defense enzyme; photosynthetic pigments Salvinia natans; Eichhornia crassipes; Eriochrome Black T dye; defense enzyme; photosynthetic pigments
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MDPI and ACS Style

Rápó, E.; Posta, K.; Csavdári, A.; Vincze, B.É.; Mara, G.; Kovács, G.; Haddidi, I.; Tonk, S. Performance Comparison of Eichhornia crassipes and Salvinia natans on Azo-Dye (Eriochrome Black T) Phytoremediation. Crystals 2020, 10, 565.

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