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Toxins 2016, 8(5), 143;

The Draft Genome Sequence of the Yersinia entomophaga Entomopathogenic Type Strain MH96T

AgResearch, Farm Systems & Environment, Lincoln Research Centre, Christchurch 8140, New Zealand
AgResearch Limited, Rumen Microbiology, Palmerston North 4474, New Zealand
Riddet Institute, Massey University, Palmerston North 4474, New Zealand
AgResearch Limited, Bioinformatics & Statistics, Hamilton 3214, New Zealand
AgResearch Limited, Bioinformatics & Statistics, Lincoln Research Centre, Christchurch 8140, New Zealand
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Vernon L. Tesh
Received: 24 March 2016 / Revised: 21 April 2016 / Accepted: 26 April 2016 / Published: 11 May 2016
(This article belongs to the Section Bacterial Toxins)
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Here we report the draft genome of Yersinia entomophaga type strain MH96T. The genome shows 93.8% nucleotide sequence identity to that of Yersinia nurmii type strain APN3a-cT, and comprises a single chromosome of approximately 4,275,531 bp. In silico analysis identified that, in addition to the previously documented Y. entomophaga Yen-TC gene cluster, the genome encodes a diverse array of toxins, including two type III secretion systems, and five rhs-associated gene clusters. As well as these multicomponent systems, several orthologs of known insect toxins, such as VIP2 toxin and the binary toxin PirAB, and distant orthologs of some mammalian toxins, including repeats-in-toxin, a cytolethal distending toxin, hemolysin-like genes and an adenylate cyclase were identified. The genome also contains a large number of hypothetical proteins and orthologs of known effector proteins, such as LopT, as well as genes encoding a wide range of proteolytic determinants, including metalloproteases and pathogen fitness determinants, such as genes involved in iron metabolism. The bioinformatic data derived from the current in silico analysis, along with previous information on the pathobiology of Y. entomophaga against its insect hosts, suggests that a number of these virulence systems are required for survival in the hemocoel and incapacitation of the insect host. View Full-Text
Keywords: Yersinia entomophaga; Yersinia ruckeri; Yersinia nurmii; Rhs; genome sequence; entomopathogen Yersinia entomophaga; Yersinia ruckeri; Yersinia nurmii; Rhs; genome sequence; entomopathogen

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Hurst, M.R.H.; Beattie, A.; Altermann, E.; Moraga, R.M.; Harper, L.A.; Calder, J.; Laugraud, A. The Draft Genome Sequence of the Yersinia entomophaga Entomopathogenic Type Strain MH96T. Toxins 2016, 8, 143.

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