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Toxins 2016, 8(5), 116;

Pathway for Biodegrading Nodularin (NOD) by Sphingopyxis sp. USTB-05

School of Chemistry and Biological Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083, China
School of Architectural and Surveying & Mapping Engineering, Jiangxi University of Science and Technology, Ganzhou 341000, China
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Academic Editor: Luis M. Botana
Received: 27 January 2016 / Revised: 8 April 2016 / Accepted: 13 April 2016 / Published: 4 May 2016
(This article belongs to the Collection Marine and Freshwater Toxins)
PDF [1665 KB, uploaded 4 May 2016]


Nodularin (NOD) is greatly produced by Nodularia spumigena and released into the environment when toxic cyanobacterial blooms happened in natural water body, which is seriously harmful to human and animals. The promising bacterial strain of Sphingopyxis sp. USTB-05 was found to have an ability in biodegrading NOD. Initially, 11.6 mg/L of NOD could be completely eliminated within 72 h by whole cells of USTB-05, and within 36 h by its crude enzymes (CEs) of 570 mg/L, respectively. During the enzymatic biodegradation process of NOD, two products were observed on the profiles of HPLC. Based on the analysis of m/z ratios of NOD and its two products on a rapid-resolution liquid chromatogram-mass spectrum (RRLC-MS), we suggested that at least two enzymes of USTB-05 participated in biodegrading NOD. The first enzyme hydrolyzed Arg-Adda peptide bond of cyclic NOD and converted it to linear NOD as the first product. The second enzyme was found to cut off the target peptide bond between Adda and Glu of linearized NOD, and Adda was produced as a second and dead-end product. This finding is very important in both basic research and the application of USTB-05 on the removal of NOD from a water environment. View Full-Text
Keywords: nodularin (NOD); Sphingopyxis sp. USTB-05; crude enzymes (CEs); biodegradation pathway nodularin (NOD); Sphingopyxis sp. USTB-05; crude enzymes (CEs); biodegradation pathway

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Feng, N.; Yang, F.; Yan, H.; Yin, C.; Liu, X.; Zhang, H.; Xu, Q.; Lv, L.; Wang, H. Pathway for Biodegrading Nodularin (NOD) by Sphingopyxis sp. USTB-05. Toxins 2016, 8, 116.

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