Next Article in Journal
Menadione-Induced Oxidative Stress Re-Shapes the Oxylipin Profile of Aspergillus flavus and Its Lifestyle
Next Article in Special Issue
AFM1 in Milk: Physical, Biological, and Prophylactic Methods to Mitigate Contamination
Previous Article in Journal
Long-Term Efficacy and Safety of Repeated Intravescial OnabotulinumtoxinA Injections Plus Hydrodistention in the Treatment of Interstitial Cystitis/Bladder Pain Syndrome
Previous Article in Special Issue
Extracellular Xylanolytic and Pectinolytic Hydrolase Production by Aspergillus flavus Isolates Contributes to Crop Invasion
Open AccessArticle

Detoxification of Aflatoxin-Contaminated Maize by Neutral Electrolyzed Oxidizing Water

UNAM–FESC. Campus 4. Multidisciplinary Research Unit L14 (Food, Mycotoxins and Mycotoxicosis), Cuautitlan Izcalli 54714, Mexico
UNAM–FESC. Campus 4. Multidisciplinary Research Unit L9 (Toxicology and Genetics), Cuautitlan Izcalli 54714, Mexico
UANL–FMVZ. Agropecuary Sciences Campus, General Escobedo 66050, Mexico
Esteripharma SA de CV. Atlacomulco 50450, Mexico
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Academic Editor: Shohei Sakuda
Toxins 2015, 7(10), 4294-4314;
Received: 17 September 2015 / Revised: 14 October 2015 / Accepted: 15 October 2015 / Published: 23 October 2015
(This article belongs to the Collection Aflatoxins)
Aflatoxins, a group of extremely toxic mycotoxins produced by Aspergillus flavus, A. parasiticus and A. nomius, can occur as natural contaminants of certain agricultural commodities, particularly maize. These toxins have been shown to be hepatotoxic, carcinogenic, mutagenic and cause severe human and animal diseases. The effectiveness of neutral electrolyzed oxidizing water (NEW) on aflatoxin detoxification was investigated in HepG2 cells using several validation methodologies such as the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5- diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay, the induction of lipid peroxidation, the oxidative damage by means of glutathione modulation, the Ames test and the alkaline Comet assay. Our results showed that, after the aflatoxin-contaminated maize containing 360 ng/g was soaked in NEW (60 mg/L available chlorine, pH 7.01) during 15 min at room temperature, the aflatoxin content did not decrease as confirmed by the immunoaffinity column and ultra performance liquid chromatography methods. Aflatoxin fluorescence strength of detoxified samples was similar to untreated samples. However, aflatoxin-associated cytotoxicity and OPEN ACCESS Toxins 2015, 7 4295 genotoxicity effects were markedly reduced upon treatment. According to these results, NEW can be effectively used to detoxify aflatoxin-contaminated maize. View Full-Text
Keywords: maize; aflatoxins; neutral electrolyzed oxidizing water; detoxification maize; aflatoxins; neutral electrolyzed oxidizing water; detoxification
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

MDPI and ACS Style

Jardon-Xicotencatl, S.; Díaz-Torres, R.; Marroquín-Cardona, A.; Villarreal-Barajas, T.; Méndez-Albores, A. Detoxification of Aflatoxin-Contaminated Maize by Neutral Electrolyzed Oxidizing Water. Toxins 2015, 7, 4294-4314.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Article Access Map by Country/Region

Only visits after 24 November 2015 are recorded.
Search more from Scilit
Back to TopTop