Next Article in Journal
Isolation and Molecular Characterization of Two Lectins from Dwarf Elder (Sambucus ebulus L.) Blossoms Related to the Sam n1 Allergen
Next Article in Special Issue
Comparison of Clean-Up Methods for Ochratoxin A on Wine, Beer, Roasted Coffee and Chili Commercialized in Italy
Previous Article in Journal
Small Chemical Chromatin Effectors Alter Secondary Metabolite Production in Aspergillus clavatus
Previous Article in Special Issue
Porcine/Chicken or Human Nephropathy as the Result of Joint Mycotoxins Interaction
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessReview

Toxicity of Ochratoxin A and Its Modulation by Antioxidants: A Review

Department of Drug Science, Section of Biochemistry, University of Catania, Catania95125, Italy
Agriculture Department, Mediterranean University of Reggio Calabria, Reggio Calabria89122, Italy
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Toxins 2013, 5(10), 1742-1766;
Received: 29 July 2013 / Revised: 25 September 2013 / Accepted: 27 September 2013 / Published: 11 October 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Ochratoxins Research)
PDF [252 KB, uploaded 11 October 2013]


Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a mycotoxin involved in the development of different types of cancers in rats, mice and humans. A growing number of in vitro and in vivo studies has been collected and has described evidence compatible with a role for oxidative stress in OTA toxicity and carcinogenicity. Because the contribution of the oxidative stress response in the development of cancers is well established, a role in OTA carcinogenicity is plausible. Several studies have been performed to try to counteract the adverse effects of oxygen radicals generated under OTA-exposure. A number of molecules with various antioxidant properties were tested, using in vivo or in vitro models. Protection against OTA-induced DNA damage, lipid peroxidation, as well as cytotoxicity were observed, further confirming the link between OTA toxicity and oxidative damage. These studies demonstrated that antioxidants are able to counteract the deleterious effects of chronic consumption or exposure to OTA and confirmed the potential effectiveness of dietary strategies to counteract OTA toxicity. View Full-Text
Keywords: ochratoxin A; oxidative stress; DNA damage; antioxidants ochratoxin A; oxidative stress; DNA damage; antioxidants
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Sorrenti, V.; Di Giacomo, C.; Acquaviva, R.; Barbagallo, I.; Bognanno, M.; Galvano, F. Toxicity of Ochratoxin A and Its Modulation by Antioxidants: A Review. Toxins 2013, 5, 1742-1766.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Toxins EISSN 2072-6651 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top