Next Article in Journal
Spatial Patterns of Aflatoxin Levels in Relation to Ear-Feeding Insect Damage in Pre-Harvest Corn
Next Article in Special Issue
Do Only Small Uremic Toxins, Chromophores, Contribute to the Online Dialysis Dose Monitoring by UV Absorbance?
Previous Article in Journal
Isolation and Biochemical Characterization of Rubelase, a Non-Hemorrhagic Elastase from Crotalus ruber ruber (Red Rattlesnake) Venom
Previous Article in Special Issue
Comparative 1H NMR Metabolomic Urinalysis of People Diagnosed with Balkan Endemic Nephropathy, and Healthy Subjects, in Romania and Bulgaria: A Pilot Study
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Toxins 2011, 3(7), 911-919;

Protein-Bound Uremic Toxins: New Insight from Clinical Studies

INSERM ERI-12 (EA 4292), Amiens 80000, France
Clinical Research Centre-Division of Clinical Pharmacology, Amiens University Hospital, Amiens 80000, France
The Jules Verne University of Picardy, Amiens 80000, France
Division of Nephrology, Amiens University Hospital, Amiens 80000, France
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 29 April 2011 / Revised: 28 June 2011 / Accepted: 5 July 2011 / Published: 20 July 2011
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Uremic Toxins)
Full-Text   |   PDF [394 KB, uploaded 20 July 2011]   |  


The uremic syndrome is attributed to the progressive retention of a large number of compounds which, under normal conditions, are excreted by healthy kidneys. The compounds are called uremic toxins when they interact negatively with biological functions. The present review focuses on a specific class of molecules, namely the family of protein-bound uremic toxins. Recent experimental studies have shown that protein-bound toxins are involved not only in the progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD), but also in the generation and aggravation of cardiovascular disease. Two protein-bound uremic retention solutes, namely indoxyl sulfate and p-cresyl sulfate, have been shown to play a prominent role. However, although these two molecules belong to the same class of molecules, exert toxic effects on the cardiovascular system in experimental animals, and accumulate in the serum of patients with CKD they may have different clinical impacts in terms of cardiovascular disease and other complications. The principal aim of this review is to evaluate the effect of p-cresyl sulfate and indoxyl sulfate retention on CKD patient outcomes, based on recent clinical studies. View Full-Text
Keywords: uremic toxins; chronic kidney disease; clinical studies; indoxyl sulfate; p-cresyl sulfate uremic toxins; chronic kidney disease; clinical studies; indoxyl sulfate; p-cresyl sulfate

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Liabeuf, S.; Drüeke, T.B.; Massy, Z.A. Protein-Bound Uremic Toxins: New Insight from Clinical Studies. Toxins 2011, 3, 911-919.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Toxins EISSN 2072-6651 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top