Next Article in Journal
The Effects of Cholera Toxin on Cellular Energy Metabolism
Next Article in Special Issue
Discovery and Characterization of Proteins Associated with Aflatoxin-Resistance: Evaluating Their Potential as Breeding Markers
Previous Article in Journal
Biological Profile of Erucin: A New Promising Anticancer Agent from Cruciferous Vegetables
Previous Article in Special Issue
Real and Perceived Risks for Mycotoxin Contamination in Foods and Feeds: Challenges for Food Safety Control

Biosynthesis and Toxicological Effects of Patulin

INRA, UR66 Pharmacologie-Toxicologie, F-31027 Toulouse, France
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Toxins 2010, 2(4), 613-631;
Received: 2 February 2010 / Revised: 4 March 2010 / Accepted: 10 March 2010 / Published: 5 April 2010
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Mycotoxin Research)
Patulin is a toxic chemical contaminant produced by several species of mold, especially within Aspergillus, Penicillium and Byssochlamys. It is the most common mycotoxin found in apples and apple-derived products such as juice, cider, compotes and other food intended for young children. Exposure to this mycotoxin is associated with immunological, neurological and gastrointestinal outcomes. Assessment of the health risks due to patulin consumption by humans has led many countries to regulate the quantity in food. A full understanding of the molecular genetics of patulin biosynthesis is incomplete, unlike other regulated mycotoxins (aflatoxins, trichothecenes and fumonisins), although the chemical structures of patulin precursors are now known. The biosynthetic pathway consists of approximately 10 steps, as suggested by biochemical studies. Recently, a cluster of 15 genes involved in patulin biosynthesis was reported, containing characterized enzymes, a regulation factor and transporter genes. This review includes information on the current understanding of the mechanisms of patulin toxinogenesis and summarizes its toxicological effects. View Full-Text
Keywords: patulin; biosynthesis; polyketide; toxicity patulin; biosynthesis; polyketide; toxicity
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Puel, O.; Galtier, P.; Oswald, I.P. Biosynthesis and Toxicological Effects of Patulin. Toxins 2010, 2, 613-631.

AMA Style

Puel O, Galtier P, Oswald IP. Biosynthesis and Toxicological Effects of Patulin. Toxins. 2010; 2(4):613-631.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Puel, Olivier, Pierre Galtier, and Isabelle P. Oswald. 2010. "Biosynthesis and Toxicological Effects of Patulin" Toxins 2, no. 4: 613-631.

Find Other Styles

Article Access Map by Country/Region

Only visits after 24 November 2015 are recorded.
Back to TopTop