Next Article in Journal
β-N-Methylamino-L-Alanine Induces Neurological Deficits and Shortened Life Span in Drosophila
Next Article in Special Issue
Ribosome-Inactivating Proteins: From Plant Defense to Tumor Attack
Previous Article in Journal / Special Issue
Tetanus Toxin C-Fragment: The Courier and the Cure?
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessReview
Toxins 2010, 2(11), 2645-2662;

Targeted Toxins in Brain Tumor Therapy

Department of Neurosurgery, State University of New York Upstate Medical University, Syracuse, New York 13210, NY, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 4 October 2010 / Revised: 20 October 2010 / Accepted: 27 October 2010 / Published: 1 November 2010
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Toxins as Therapeutics)
Full-Text   |   PDF [155 KB, uploaded 1 November 2010]


Targeted toxins, also known as immunotoxins or cytotoxins, are recombinant molecules that specifically bind to cell surface receptors that are overexpressed in cancer and the toxin component kills the cell. These recombinant proteins consist of a specific antibody or ligand coupled to a protein toxin. The targeted toxins bind to a surface antigen or receptor overexpressed in tumors, such as the epidermal growth factor receptor or interleukin-13 receptor. The toxin part of the molecule in all clinically used toxins is modified from bacterial or plant toxins, fused to an antibody or carrier ligand. Targeted toxins are very effective against cancer cells resistant to radiation and chemotherapy. They are far more potent than any known chemotherapy drug. Targeted toxins have shown an acceptable profile of toxicity and safety in early clinical studies and have demonstrated evidence of a tumor response. Currently, clinical trials with some targeted toxins are complete and the final results are pending. This review summarizes the characteristics of targeted toxins and the key findings of the important clinical studies with targeted toxins in malignant brain tumor patients. Obstacles to successful treatment of malignant brain tumors include poor penetration into tumor masses, the immune response to the toxin component and cancer heterogeneity. Strategies to overcome these limitations are being pursued in the current generation of targeted toxins. View Full-Text
Keywords: targeted toxin; immunotoxin; cytotoxin; diphtheria toxin; pseudomonas exotoxin targeted toxin; immunotoxin; cytotoxin; diphtheria toxin; pseudomonas exotoxin
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Li, Y.M.; Hall, W.A. Targeted Toxins in Brain Tumor Therapy. Toxins 2010, 2, 2645-2662.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Toxins EISSN 2072-6651 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top