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Effect of Botulinum Toxin on Non-Motor Symptoms in Cervical Dystonia

Department of Human Neurosciences, Sapienza University of Rome, Viale dell’Università 30, 00185 Rome, Italy
IRCSS Neuromed, Via Atinense 18, 86077 Pozzilli, Italy
Department of Neurosciences, Mental Health and Sensory Organs, Faculty of Medicine and Psychology, Suicide Prevention Centre, Sant’Andrea Hospital, Sapienza University of Rome, Via di Grottarossa 1035-1039, 00185 Rome, Italy
Department of Medical Sciences and Public Health, University of Cagliari, SS 554 Bivio Sestu, 09042 Monserrato, Italy
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Contributed equally.
Toxins 2021, 13(9), 647;
Received: 18 August 2021 / Revised: 7 September 2021 / Accepted: 9 September 2021 / Published: 12 September 2021
Patients with cervical dystonia (CD) may display non-motor symptoms, including psychiatric disturbances, pain, and sleep disorders. Intramuscular injection of botulinum toxin type A (BoNT-A) is the most efficacious treatment for motor symptoms in CD, but little is known about its effects on non-motor manifestations. The aim of the present study was to longitudinally assess BoNT-A’s effects on CD non-motor symptoms and to investigate the relationship between BoNT-A-induced motor and non-motor changes. Forty-five patients with CD participated in the study. Patients underwent a clinical assessment that included the administration of standardized clinical scales assessing dystonic symptoms, psychiatric disturbances, pain, sleep disturbances, and disability. Clinical assessment was performed before and one and three months after BoNT-A injection. BoNT-A induced a significant improvement in dystonic symptoms, as well as in psychiatric disturbances, pain, and disability. Conversely, sleep disorders were unaffected by BoNT-A treatment. Motor and non-motor BoNT-A-induced changes showed a similar time course, but motor improvement did not correlate with non-motor changes after BoNT-A. Non-motor symptom changes after BoNT-A treatment are a complex phenomenon and are at least partially independent from motor symptom improvement. View Full-Text
Keywords: cervical dystonia; non-motor symptoms; botulinum toxin; psychiatric disorders; pain cervical dystonia; non-motor symptoms; botulinum toxin; psychiatric disorders; pain
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MDPI and ACS Style

Costanzo, M.; Belvisi, D.; Berardelli, I.; Maraone, A.; Baione, V.; Ferrazzano, G.; Cutrona, C.; Leodori, G.; Pasquini, M.; Conte, A.; Fabbrini, G.; Defazio, G.; Berardelli, A. Effect of Botulinum Toxin on Non-Motor Symptoms in Cervical Dystonia. Toxins 2021, 13, 647.

AMA Style

Costanzo M, Belvisi D, Berardelli I, Maraone A, Baione V, Ferrazzano G, Cutrona C, Leodori G, Pasquini M, Conte A, Fabbrini G, Defazio G, Berardelli A. Effect of Botulinum Toxin on Non-Motor Symptoms in Cervical Dystonia. Toxins. 2021; 13(9):647.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Costanzo, Matteo, Daniele Belvisi, Isabella Berardelli, Annalisa Maraone, Viola Baione, Gina Ferrazzano, Carolina Cutrona, Giorgio Leodori, Massimo Pasquini, Antonella Conte, Giovanni Fabbrini, Giovanni Defazio, and Alfredo Berardelli. 2021. "Effect of Botulinum Toxin on Non-Motor Symptoms in Cervical Dystonia" Toxins 13, no. 9: 647.

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