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Current Knowledge on Snake Dry Bites

Medical School, Federal University of Roraima, Boa Vista 69310-000, Roraima, Brazil
Department of Biotechnology and Biomedicine, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2800 Kongens Lyngby, Denmark
Bioporto Diagnostics A/S, DK-2900 Hellerup, Denmark
Department of BioMolecular Sciences, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences of Ribeirão Preto, University of São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo 14049-900, Brazil
Butantan Institute, São Paulo 05503-900, Brazil
Department of Medicine and Nursing, School of Health Sciences, Amazonas State University, Manaus 69065-001, Amazonas, Brazil
Department of Teaching and Research, Alfredo da Matta Foundation, Manaus 69065-130, Amazonas, Brazil
Department of Teaching and Research, Dr. Heitor Vieira Dourado Tropical Medicine Foundation, Manaus 69040-000, Amazonas, Brazil
Institute of Biological Sciences, Amazonas Federal University, Manaus 69067-005, Amazonas, Brazil
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Toxins 2020, 12(11), 668;
Received: 1 September 2020 / Revised: 15 October 2020 / Accepted: 16 October 2020 / Published: 22 October 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Strategies for the Diagnosis and Treatment of Snakebites)
Snake ‘dry bites’ are characterized by the absence of venom being injected into the victim during a snakebite incident. The dry bite mechanism and diagnosis are quite complex, and the lack of envenoming symptoms in these cases may be misinterpreted as a miraculous treatment or as proof that the bite from the perpetrating snake species is rather harmless. The circumstances of dry bites and their clinical diagnosis are not well-explored in the literature, which may lead to ambiguity amongst treating personnel about whether antivenom is indicated or not. Here, the epidemiology and recorded history of dry bites are reviewed, and the clinical knowledge on the dry bite phenomenon is presented and discussed. Finally, this review proposes a diagnostic and therapeutic protocol to assist medical care after snake dry bites, aiming to improve patient outcomes. View Full-Text
Keywords: dry bites; venom; non-envenoming; snakebite; antivenom; asymptomatic envenoming dry bites; venom; non-envenoming; snakebite; antivenom; asymptomatic envenoming
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MDPI and ACS Style

Pucca, M.B.; Knudsen, C.; S. Oliveira, I.; Rimbault, C.; A. Cerni, F.; Wen, F.H.; Sachett, J.; Sartim, M.A.; Laustsen, A.H.; Monteiro, W.M. Current Knowledge on Snake Dry Bites. Toxins 2020, 12, 668.

AMA Style

Pucca MB, Knudsen C, S. Oliveira I, Rimbault C, A. Cerni F, Wen FH, Sachett J, Sartim MA, Laustsen AH, Monteiro WM. Current Knowledge on Snake Dry Bites. Toxins. 2020; 12(11):668.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Pucca, Manuela B., Cecilie Knudsen, Isadora S. Oliveira, Charlotte Rimbault, Felipe A. Cerni, Fan H. Wen, Jacqueline Sachett, Marco A. Sartim, Andreas H. Laustsen, and Wuelton M. Monteiro 2020. "Current Knowledge on Snake Dry Bites" Toxins 12, no. 11: 668.

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