Next Article in Journal
Proteomic Investigations of Two Pakistani Naja Snake Venoms Species Unravel the Venom Complexity, Posttranslational Modifications, and Presence of Extracellular Vesicles
Next Article in Special Issue
Development of a Treatment Protocol for Cobra (Naja naja) Bite Envenoming in Dogs
Previous Article in Journal
New Insights in Saccharomyces cerevisiae Response to the Cyanotoxin Microcystin-LR, Revealed by Proteomics and Gene Expression
Previous Article in Special Issue
Clinical Features and Management of Snakebite Envenoming in French Guiana
Review

Current Knowledge on Snake Dry Bites

1
Medical School, Federal University of Roraima, Boa Vista 69310-000, Roraima, Brazil
2
Department of Biotechnology and Biomedicine, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2800 Kongens Lyngby, Denmark
3
Bioporto Diagnostics A/S, DK-2900 Hellerup, Denmark
4
Department of BioMolecular Sciences, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences of Ribeirão Preto, University of São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo 14049-900, Brazil
5
Butantan Institute, São Paulo 05503-900, Brazil
6
Department of Medicine and Nursing, School of Health Sciences, Amazonas State University, Manaus 69065-001, Amazonas, Brazil
7
Department of Teaching and Research, Alfredo da Matta Foundation, Manaus 69065-130, Amazonas, Brazil
8
Department of Teaching and Research, Dr. Heitor Vieira Dourado Tropical Medicine Foundation, Manaus 69040-000, Amazonas, Brazil
9
Institute of Biological Sciences, Amazonas Federal University, Manaus 69067-005, Amazonas, Brazil
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Toxins 2020, 12(11), 668; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins12110668
Received: 1 September 2020 / Revised: 15 October 2020 / Accepted: 16 October 2020 / Published: 22 October 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Strategies for the Diagnosis and Treatment of Snakebites)
Snake ‘dry bites’ are characterized by the absence of venom being injected into the victim during a snakebite incident. The dry bite mechanism and diagnosis are quite complex, and the lack of envenoming symptoms in these cases may be misinterpreted as a miraculous treatment or as proof that the bite from the perpetrating snake species is rather harmless. The circumstances of dry bites and their clinical diagnosis are not well-explored in the literature, which may lead to ambiguity amongst treating personnel about whether antivenom is indicated or not. Here, the epidemiology and recorded history of dry bites are reviewed, and the clinical knowledge on the dry bite phenomenon is presented and discussed. Finally, this review proposes a diagnostic and therapeutic protocol to assist medical care after snake dry bites, aiming to improve patient outcomes. View Full-Text
Keywords: dry bites; venom; non-envenoming; snakebite; antivenom; asymptomatic envenoming dry bites; venom; non-envenoming; snakebite; antivenom; asymptomatic envenoming
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Pucca, M.B.; Knudsen, C.; S. Oliveira, I.; Rimbault, C.; A. Cerni, F.; Wen, F.H.; Sachett, J.; Sartim, M.A.; Laustsen, A.H.; Monteiro, W.M. Current Knowledge on Snake Dry Bites. Toxins 2020, 12, 668. https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins12110668

AMA Style

Pucca MB, Knudsen C, S. Oliveira I, Rimbault C, A. Cerni F, Wen FH, Sachett J, Sartim MA, Laustsen AH, Monteiro WM. Current Knowledge on Snake Dry Bites. Toxins. 2020; 12(11):668. https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins12110668

Chicago/Turabian Style

Pucca, Manuela B., Cecilie Knudsen, Isadora S. Oliveira, Charlotte Rimbault, Felipe A. Cerni, Fan H. Wen, Jacqueline Sachett, Marco A. Sartim, Andreas H. Laustsen, and Wuelton M. Monteiro 2020. "Current Knowledge on Snake Dry Bites" Toxins 12, no. 11: 668. https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins12110668

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop