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Mycotoxins in Ethiopia: A Review on Prevalence, Economic and Health Impacts

1
School of Food Science and Engineering, Foshan University, Foshan 528231, China
2
Key Laboratory of Agro-Products Quality and Safety Control in Storage and Transport Process, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, Institute of Food Science and Technology, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100193, China
3
Bahir Dar Institute of Technology, Bahir Dar University, Bahir Dar 79, Ethiopia
4
Ethiopian Biotechnology Institute, Addis Ababa 5954, Ethiopia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Toxins 2020, 12(10), 648; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins12100648
Received: 28 July 2020 / Revised: 28 September 2020 / Accepted: 30 September 2020 / Published: 8 October 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Mycotoxins)
Mycotoxigenic fungi and their toxins are a global concern, causing huge economic and health impacts in developing countries such as Ethiopia, where the mycotoxin control system is inadequate. This work aimed to review the occurrences of agriculturally essential fungi such as Aspergillus, Fusarium, and Penicillium and their major mycotoxins in Ethiopian food/feedstuffs. The incidents of crucial toxins, including aflatoxins (B1, B2, G1, G2, M1), fumonisins (B1, B2), zearalenone, deoxynivalenol, and ochratoxin A, were studied. The impacts of chronic aflatoxin exposure on liver cancer risks, synergy with chronic hepatitis B infection, and possible links with Ethiopian childhood malnutrition were thoroughly examined. In addition, health risks of other potential mycotoxin exposure are also discussed, and the impacts of unsafe level of mycotoxin contaminations on economically essential export products and livestock productions were assessed. Feasible mycotoxin mitigation strategies such as biocontrol methods and binding agents (bentonite) were recommended because they are relatively cheap for low-income farmers and widely available in Ethiopia, respectively. Moreover, Ethiopian mycotoxin regulations, storage practice, adulteration practice, mycotoxin tests, and knowledge gaps among value chain actors were highlighted. Finally, sustained public awareness was suggested, along with technical and human capacity developments in the food control sector. View Full-Text
Keywords: mycotoxins; aflatoxins; fumonisins; ochratoxins; trichotecenes; standards; hepatocellular carcinoma; Ethiopia mycotoxins; aflatoxins; fumonisins; ochratoxins; trichotecenes; standards; hepatocellular carcinoma; Ethiopia
MDPI and ACS Style

Mamo, F.T.; Abate, B.A.; Tesfaye, K.; Nie, C.; Wang, G.; Liu, Y. Mycotoxins in Ethiopia: A Review on Prevalence, Economic and Health Impacts. Toxins 2020, 12, 648.

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