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Dynamic Ochratoxin A Production by Strains of Aspergillus niger Intended Used in Food Industry of China

1,†, 2,† and 1,*
1
NHC Key Laboratory of Food Safety Risk Assessment, China National Center for Food Safety Risk Assessment, Beijing 100021, China
2
National Institute for Nutrition and Health, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing 10050, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Toxins 2019, 11(2), 122; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins11020122
Received: 8 January 2019 / Revised: 31 January 2019 / Accepted: 14 February 2019 / Published: 18 February 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Mycotoxins)
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Abstract

Thirty strains of Aspergillus niger, including 27 intended used in the food industry of China, were studied for their ochratoxin A (OTA) production on the three natural substrates—corn, rice, and wheat bran—at different time intervals by high-performance liquid chromatography. It was found that the frequencies of OTA for the studied 27 industrial strains ranged from 14.8% (4/27) at day 28 to 25.9% (7/27) at day 7 on corn, 14.8% (4/27) at day 7 to 33.3% (9/27) at day 21 on rice, and 22.2% (6/27) at day 7, 14, and 28 to 44.4% (12/27) at day 21 on wheat bran, respectively. The average concentrations of OTA produced by the studied 27 industrial strains ranged from 5.1 μg/kg at day 28 to 8.7 μg/kg at day 21 on corn, 4.2 μg/kg at day 7 to 17.9 μg/kg at day 14 on rice, and 4.5 μg/kg at day 7 to 7.2 μg/kg at day 21 on wheat bran, respectively. Furthermore, the OTA production in the studied 27 industrial strains of A.niger was strongly associated with their function (or application), culture substrate, and time. The saccharifying enzyme producers produced higher levels of OTA, compared with the organic acid producers, the tannase producers, and the β-galactosidase producer, while concentration differences were also observed in OTA production among strains of A.niger with the same application. In a word, some strains of A.niger intended used in the Chinese food industry indeed have the capability of producing OTA, elevating the risks to food safety associated with their use. View Full-Text
Keywords: Aspergillus niger; Ochratoxin A; Food industry; China Aspergillus niger; Ochratoxin A; Food industry; China
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Han, X.; Jiang, H.; Li, F. Dynamic Ochratoxin A Production by Strains of Aspergillus niger Intended Used in Food Industry of China. Toxins 2019, 11, 122.

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